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Terrorism from Above and Below in the Age of Globalization

Published in 2011, Jalata, Asafa, Sociology Mind - Archived on March 31st, 2012

Title: Terrorism from Above and Below in the Age of Globalization
Author: Asafa Jalata (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA)
Published: Sociology Mind Vol.1, No.1, 2011, pp. 1-15
Language: English
Keywords: Terrorism, Globalization, 9/11, Capitalism, Terrorism Studies, Genocide, Colonial Terrorism

This paper explains how the intensification of globalization as the modern world system has increased the occurrence of terrorism from above (i.e. state actors) and from below (i.e. non-state actors). We cannot adequately grasp the essence and characteristics of modern terrorism without understanding the larger cultural, social, economic, and political contexts in which it takes place. Since terrorism has been conceptualized, defined, and theorized by those who have contradictory interests and objectives and since the subject matter of terrorism is complex, difficult, and elusive, there is a wide gap in establishing a common understanding among the scholars of terrorism studies. Most experts on the subject look at this issue from a narrow perspective by ignoring the reality that terrorism is a “social cancer” for all human groups affected by it. First, this paper defines the concept of terrorism in relation to different forms of terrorism, and explains how it has increased with the intensification of globalization. Second, taking the events of 9/11 and the case of Ethiopian state terrorism, the piece explores the general impacts of all forms of terrorism.

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Colonialism of Mind: Deterrent of Social Transformation – The Experiences of Oromo People in Ethiopia

Published in 2011, Dugassa, Begna F., Sociology Mind - Archived on March 15th, 2012

Title: Colonialism of Mind: Deterrent of Social Transformation – The Experiences of Oromo People in Ethiopia
Author: Begna F. Dugassa (Toronto Public Health, Toronto, Canada)
Published: Sociology Mind Vol.1, No.2, 2011, pp. 55-64
Language: English
Keywords: colonial education, colonial knowledge, empowering education, disempowering education and indoctrination

An educational system and its curricula are shaped by the culture and epistemology in which it is embedded. It is influenced by the societal knowledge, but it also instrumental in shaping the knowledge of the society. Culture influences learning style. Based on cultural diversities and social needs, different societies have distinct curricula. As such, Oromo students ought to be taught now to interrogate the colonial epistemology and ideology as well schooled in the ways of dismantling the hegemony. However, in many cases, they are simply taught to reproduce the knowledge, culture, power structure, thinking and the worldview of colonizers. This means that education, which is supposed to be about critical inquiry and social transformation has been used to indoctrinate or brainwash some students. Such colonial educational curricula have invalidated the knowledge of indigenous Oromo people and compromised their needs. This type of education system, instead of empowering the students and their society, has incapacitated them. For the Oromo people, such curricula have distorted their history, image, identity, and damaged their social fabric. In this paper I argue that, colonial knowledge and education system is not in a position to bring about social transformation among Oromo people; on the contrary it disrupts their peace (nagaa), health (fayya) and (tasgabii) social order.

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