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Seenaa Barreefama Afaan Oromootiifi Shoora Dr. Sheek Mahammad Rashaad | History of Oromo Writing and the Contribution of Dr. Mohammed Reshad

Posted: Waxabajjii/June 17, 2013 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com | Comments (2)

UPDATED with English version of the article on July 31, 2013.


History of Oromo Writing and the Contribution of Dr. Mohammed Reshad

By Dr. Abdulsemed Mohammed

Language is a means of communication, and a symbol of national identity. As a means of communication, a language serves as a bridge to bring two sides together.  As such, it can be used in at least two different ways namely, verbal and written communications. Verbal communication involves using spoken words while written communication requires symbols representing the words. There is no doubt that every human language can serve its people in both these two ways. Unfortunately, not all languages in the world are written languages; there are many languages that still remain being a spoken language. Among those that remained as spoken language for many years, one was the Oromo Language.  Despite rigorous efforts made to transform the Oromo language into a written language, evidences indicate that it was about 250 years ago when some among the Oromo started writing in the Oromo language. The objective of this paper is to present a brief history of writing in Afaan Oromoo.

A written language uses symbols that are systematically put in order to produce a message that can be understood. The symbols used to write with in a language are called the ALPHABETH. The alphabet of any language must have symbols representing all the sounds of that language. The symbols that make up an alphabet are expected to perfectly fit for the sounds they represent and must be easy to use.

Before going to the core of the article, it is fair to present the efforts of many scholars to transform Afaan Oromoo from spoken language to a written language. Evidences we have indicate that the first fruitful effort was done by Raayyaa Oromo during the time of the dominant clerics, Anniyyi and Daanniyyi. These clerics wrote the first books that go into the first line of Oromo literary works. The books contained poems, hymns and Islamic religious songs, generally referred to as Menzumah. The authors used the Arabic alphabet with some symbols modified to represent Oromo phonemes not present in Arabic language. They include sounds represented by the following symbols in the standard Oromo alphabet: (C, CH, DH, G, NY, PH). Copies were written by scribes (writers) by hand on animal skin and hide using locally made pen and ink. The pen is a sharp handy splinters made from a bamboo tree.  Ink was prepared from a mixture of water, soot, natural gum, and other ingredients. Arabic Alphabet has another advantage for Afaan Oromoo. It has symbols and a writing system to represent short and long vowels as well as stressed and non-stressed consonants. For those already literate in Arabic learning to read and write in Afaan Oromoo became very easy. Oromo phonemes represented today by these  two symbols  X” and “Q” are basically different from the Arabic ( and ). Most Oromos pronounce those two Arabic phonemes: / / as “X” – and / / as “Q”. Therefore, both were accepted not as similar sounds but as quasi close to each other.

Until the use of the standard Oromo alphabet was declared by law, all Oromo clerics wrote Afaan Oromoo using the Arabic alphabet.  All books were written by hand because there were no typewriters and printing press available for Afaan Oromoo. In reality, it was absolutely impossible for several reasons, as there were no skilled manpower, no finance, and no government to support the cause. Until recently, writing in Afaan Oromoo was illegal in Ethiopia and all efforts of Oromo clerics did not produce results.

Onesimus Neseeb
Towards the end of the 19th century, European Protestant Christians got interested in Afaan Oromoo, and they wanted to have the Bible translated into Afaan Oromoo.  Onesimus Neseeb (Abbaa Gammachiis), an Oromo scholar of the bible from Western part of Oromo Land and who got converted to Protestant around that time, started translating the bible from Amharic to Afaan Oromoo. Haile Fida, in his book Hirmaata Dubbii Afaan Oromoo, says that Onesimus translated from a European language into Afaan Oromoo, but did not specify the source language. The writer of this article disagrees. He says there are enough reasons to believe that Amharic was the source language. Onesimus had mastered the Amharic alphabet before he began the translation. The translated book itself is a sufficient witness to that effect.

He did that in Asmara (Eritrea), where he was living. Upon completion, the bible was printed as the first Oromo version in 1899. The book was published under the title “Macaafa Qulqulluu,” meaning “Holy Book.” The name of the translator was included and written as “Onesimus Neseeb, Nama Biyya Oromoo” (Onesimus Neseeb, a man from Oromo Land). Onesimus used the Sabean Alphabet to write in Afaan Oromoo. The alphabet is used to write Amharic, and Tigrigna. There was no evidence that shows its use for Afaan Oromoo before Onesimus Neseeb. The Sabean Alphabet has major shortcomings to use for Afaan Oromoo. First, it does not have a system of differentiating long vowels from the short ones. It has seven vowels whereas Afaan Oromoo has ten (five shorts, and five long) vowels. Moreover, two of the seven vowels do not represent any of the ten vowels. One is referred to as the “Gi’iz” and the other one “Sadis,” i.e. the 1st and the 6th vowel, respectively.  The Sabean Alphabet in its original form contained no vowel marks, and was only consonants in the Gi’iz form. The six vowels are kaa’ib, saalis, raabi’, haamis, saadis, and saabi’), meaning “the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th”. All are latter additions or modifications  intended to indicate the seven vowel sounds of the Amharic language. Before that, it was written without vowel marks like its sister alphabets, Arabic and Hebrew. The other problem of the Sabean Alphabet is it does not differentiate between stressed and non-stressed sounds.

The effort to make Afaan Oromoo a written language continued with new and fresh ideas. European travelers, Christian missionaries, and others used the Latin alphabet to write Afaan Oromoo, and we can conveniently call it as the era of the Latin alphabet for Afaan Oromoo. The era can be divided into two periods: one before the Second World War, and the other during and after the Second World War.

The period before the Second World War is basically the effort of European Christian missionaries from Germany, Italy, France, and others.  The objective of the missionaries was not to develop Afaan Oromoo, but to propagate Christianity. Small-size booklets with basic Christian teachings, only one Gospel According to Matthew or John, etc. were printed and distributed. There were also larger books written on vocabularies, proverbs, rhymes and favelas. The writers used the Latin Alphabet exactly as they were used to write their own language. Symbols were named as assumed by individual writers. No two writers used similar symbols and writing systems. Books, booklets, and writings written in that way cannot and did not produce the intended result. The authors did not study the language, and therefore, did not pay attention to the differences in meaning resulting from vowel length (short and long vowels) as well as stressed and non-stressed sounds in Afaan Oromoo.

Martin Moreno
During the Second World War, powerful Italy with the grudge it had previously, raided and occupied Ethiopia. (Here, I am not discussing about the war and its immediate as well as its late consequences, it is not the objective of the paper.) When Italy occupied Ethiopia, it did not bring in armed forces and soldiers only. It also brought professionals that were well trained and experienced in every field of knowledge. One of those professionals brought into the country was a person named Martin Moreno. Moreno was a great scholar and a renowned linguist. Moreno was assigned to study the major languages of the newly conquered territories of the Italian Empire. He started his work by studying Afaan Oromoo and other related languages. He learned the language, including the various dialects, in a short period of time. His main informant spoke the Tulema dialect, but he also had informants speaking the other dialects. He studied the phonology, morphology, and syntax of the language and compiled the result of his study into a book which was published in 1939. Moreno clearly stated that both the Sabean and the Arabic alphabet are not suitable for the Oromo language. He developed the Latin based Oromo Alphabet which is shown below.  During the period from 1935-1939, he presented a number of research papers on the Oromo language at the conferences of Italian linguists.

Moreno was the first person that understood the linguistic properties of Afaan Oromoo. In 1939 he published his monumental work “Grammatica della Lingua Galla(Grammar of the Galla Language), in which he had explained the phonology, morphology and syntax of the language. Moreno used the word Galla not because it was his choice, but it was used to refer to the people by new rulers, the Italians. In that same book, Moreno mentioned, “The Galla call themselves OROMO. Regarding the Oromo language, Moreno wrote the following beautiful words. “Mi auguro che questo lavoro sia di qualche beneficio la piu importante e piu dolce dell’empero,” when translated into English, it reads: “I feel proud that if this work is of any benefit for the most important and the sweetest of the languages of the empire.” The Oromo people will always remember Martin Moreno as one of his own heroes, and would not hesitate to call him “ilma Keenya” (meaning, our son).

Moreno’s Alphabet: for Afaan Oromoo

           A          B          C          Č          D          Ḑ         E          F          G         H          I            J          K          L          M         N          Ñ          O         p          Q         R          S          Ṧ                        T          Ṭ          U          W         Y          Z

He is the first to understand and include the glottal stop (laagee or hudhaa). He developed symbols indicating long vowels and represented stressed sounds by doubling the consonants. I take the liberty to name Martin Moreno as “the father of linguistics of Afaan Oromo for his immense contributions towards the Oromo Alphabet writing and Oromo grammar.”

When the war ended with the victory of the Allied Forces, Italy was kicked out from Ethiopia, the old status quo was reinstated, and the exiled king returned to the country, and his rule was reestablished. As a result, all voices dealing with reading and writing Afaan Oromoo were silenced, possession of Oromo books became illegal. The relative light the Oromo saw during the war vanished; the hope to write and read in Afaan Oromoo disappeared; and Oromo Land was once again engulfed by darkness.

Haile Fida
After the war, young people started to go abroad for further studies. Depending on the mode of travel, two groups emerged. One group includes all those traveled abroad legally because of scholarship grants from other countries, international organizations or non-governmental agencies. This included all those traveled for BA/BSc, MA/MSc or Ph.D. degrees. All of them knew where they would go, which universities they would attend, what they would learn, the duration of time their study would last, the amount of pocket money or living expense they would receive monthly, etc. Their destinations were usually Europe and North America. Most belonged to the Amhara ethnic group, and some were from other ethnic groups. Not all who traveled abroad in this way focused only on studying; some showed political interests as well. They embraced politics with a tendency towards the left and became leftists. They accepted Marxist–Leninist philosophy. They established the Union of Ethiopian Students in Europe, and in North America. Among those in Europe, there were Oromos like Haile Fida and Abdullahi Yousuf. They were notable because they put significant effort to make Afaan Oromoo a written language. The work of Martin Moreno was easily accessible, and they used it. They did slight modification to it and came up with their version of Oromo Alphabet. In 1973 two books were written in Afaan Oromoo, and both were published. The titles of these books were “HIRMAATA DUBBII AFAAN OROMOO” and “BARA BIRRAAN BARIHE.” The first book is “Parts of Speech in Afaan Oromoo.” It is a basic grammar book. The second one is a drama on life under the feudal system. The main characters were Grazmatch Tonkolu, the feudal lord, and Iddosaa, the son of a peasant farmer. It is believed that Dr. Haile Fida did the major parts of these books, and Abdullahi Yousuf was a contributor as the dialects of the book indicated.

The Alphabet Haile Fida and his colleagues used.

A          B          C          č          D              E          F          G         H          I           J            K          L          M         N          Ñ          O         H          P          Q         R          S          ṧ            T          Ṭ          U          W         Y          Z

Both are the first books written and published by Oromo nationals, and were the first books showing short and long vowels as well as stressed and non-stressed sounds. Following the fall of the monarch, this group returned to Ethiopia as a political party under the name ‘MEISON’ (All Ethiopian Socialist Movement). They gave critical support to the military, which later consumed them.

Hayle Fida’s Alphabet, although borrowed from Moreno, had two problems. One is a linguistic mistake. The glottal stop was not included in the alphabet. He probably forgot it or did not know that it is consonant.  The second was related to the politics of the time, and did not consider the lack of  typewriters with appropriate symbols for writing and printing in the Oromo language. Moreover, there was no government to fund and implement his wishful plan.

By then, the Oromo liberation struggle had begun, and the army was required to study politics and all other subjects in Afaan Oromoo. Haile Fida’s alphabet was adopted with some modifications. Instead of the accent marks like the inverted, chapeus were replaced by a short line segments over the letter. The rest was not changed. With new modification, it seemed easy to use the typewriter that required moving the cursor up/down to type the added symbols.

The result was time consuming work. To type the added marks, the cursor must be moved down or up to place the mark over or under the letters, respectively. Letters could not be aligned on a straight line and the papers looked untidy.

The Alphabet initially used by the OLF:

A          B          CH       C          D          D          E          F          G         H          I           J            K          L          M         N          Ñ          O         P          Q         R          S          SH       T            Ṭ          U          W         Y          Z

NB: T with a dot underneath is X.

Sheik Mohammed Rashad 
News about the book “FURA AFAAN OROMOO” started to arrive. It is the book on Qubee Afaan Oromoo – prepared by Sheik Mohammed Reshad. The author was a very prominent scholar celebrity among the Oromo people. The alphabet he prepared developed from the Latin, and is easier to use. One particular advantage his alphabet has, it can be typed using English typewriter.

The second group of students who traveled abroad for studying include all youth who, by their own free will, decided to travel. They were not sponsored by any government or non-governmental organization. They had no scholarship grant. They did not know where to go, what to study, for how long, and what their expenses were. The only thing they had was the desire to learn. They traveled on foot; crossed  borders and  reached  a neighbouring country. From there, only a few got the opportunity to reach a destination in the Middle East. A number of those, who traveled on foot, did not even cross the border. Death was  their fate, because of hunger, disease, or attack from wild animals.  Most, who traveled in this way, were Muslims and among them, the man who successfully completed his studies and contributed a lot to his people was Dr. Sheik Mohammed Rashaad.

Sheik Mohammed Reshad was born at Laga Arbaa, Carcar district, West Hararge zone in East Oromia. At school age, he started learning Islamic education from his father who was his teacher. Rashad was a fast learner who completed basic and intermediate education in a short period of time. He was a nationalist who rejected the suffering of the Oromo under the repressive Neftenya regime. When he grew to be a teenager, his father allowed him to travel to learn and seek knowledge. One day, he decided to travel with his friend. They started their journey on foot from Laga Arbaa.  Along their way, they had traveled through many villages and towns, but he mentioned only two i.e. Chiro and Harar. When asked why he mentioned only the two, his answer was as follows. “When I reached the town of Chiro, I saw Abyssinian soldiers performing their routine parade. I saw a similar thing in Harar, too. At that time, I thought the enemy soldiers subjugating the Oromo were encamped only at those two places, and one needs to get rid of those soldiers to free the Oromo people. Therefore, I decided that I and my friend should travel abroad, meet with Muslims, explain the situation of our people, ask for arms, get armed with fire arms and hand grenades, return back home, one of us to Harar and the other to Chiro, set an agreed upon date and time, launch a preemptive attack, finish the enemy army and liberate our people. That was what I thought to accomplish at that young age.  This makes his purpose of travel abroad a dual one: education and politics.  First, he crossed the border and entered Djibouti on foot. From there, he crossed the Red Sea by boat and reached Yemen. From Yemen, he traveled through the Arabian Desert and, finally, made it to the city of Medinah in Saudi Arabia, where he settled for some time. During this long travel, he faced many difficulties and obstacles, some of which were undoubtedly fatal. Had it not been for the help of Allah, he would have not reached his adulthood to tell the story. Following a brief period of stay in Saudi Arabia, he traveled to Syria where he started his studies. Upon completion of his studies, he was congratulated, but was seen off without a diploma or a certificate. Because of this and the counseling he received from his friends, he traveled to Egypt where he got registered at Al Azaar University. He continued his studies and graduated with BA and then MA degrees. His major was religion, but he had taken several courses in sociology, psychology and counseling, logic and linguistics.

Dr. Rashad was not only a scholar who proved himself with his knowledge, but a nationalist who showed himself with what he did for the nation. At the University of Al Azaar, there was a department where foreign languages were taught. Among the courses, one was the Amharic language. He could not believe his ears when he heard it first until he confirmed that it was true. At that time, he prepared an official request and presented it to the department to include the Oromo language in their courses. His request was denied, and he asked why it was denied. The answer given to him through an indirect body was “Because the Oromo language has no alphabet.” He got the answer from an indirect source. It would not be difficult to guess what this has triggered in him. He felt very bad and decided that all his efforts so far were for himself, the rest should be for his people. He believed that the Oromo language should have an alphabet and must be a written language. He took this responsibility upon himself and began his work towards the goal. First he studied the efforts of Aanniyyi and Danniyyi, and the work of Bekri Saphalo. He analyzed both and tried to understand the pros and cons of both alphabets if used for the Oromo language. Finally, he set three fundamental criteria to fulfill before any alphabet can be chosen. The three criteria are:

1) The alphabet should completely represent the Oromo phonemes

2) The people who can teach it should be available easily and everywhere

3) Typewriters and printing press must be readily available

Both alphabets were found not to fulfill the criteria. The Arabic alphabet could not fulfill all the three. Its symbols do not represent the entire phonemes because it is short by eight symbols. It means it does not have symbols representing eight sounds which are currently represented by: /C/, /CH/, /DH/, /G/, /NY/, /PH/, /X/ and /Q/. Because of the Oromo accent and the presence of sounds loosely close to them, we can disregard the last two i.e. /X/ and /Q/. To explain the six sounds for which the Arabic alphabet has no symbols, nothing is better than the example produced by Dr. Rashad himself. It goes, ask any Arab to pronounce the following sentence: “Dhagaa caphsii cirracha nyaadhu” and see for yourself that he/she cannot. Similarly, you cannot write that sentence using the Arabic alphabet. Symbols can be modified to represent those sounds, but no typewriters or printing presses are readily available for use. Because of this reason the Arabic alphabet, as it is, cannot be chosen for Afaan Oromoo.

Sheik Bekri Sephalo
Among the Oromo scholars who worked to create an alphabet for the Oromo language, the first and the biggest name that comes forth is Sheik Bakri Saphalo. Saphalo was a renowned scholar on Islam and Arabic. No doubt that he tried the Arabic alphabet first. And, it was he who invented the sentence “Gaccaphii nyadhachoo” to show the deficiency of the Arabic Alphabet. The Saphalo alphabet is not borrowed, but invented in Oromiyaa by an Oromo. It is a symbol of pride that made the Oromo a nation that owns home-made alphabet. As such, all of us should be proud of it. It strengthens the psychology of Oromummaa and must be kept, honored and developed for it is a national treasure. Finally, I would like to say loudly and confidently that it is the only alphabet born in Africa. The Sabean alphabet was invented in Asia, and not in Africa. It was brought to Africa by the people who migrated from Yemen. More evidences can be presented to expose the lie about Sabean alphabet. For the moment, I’ll stick to the aim of the article and will return to the issue when it is required.

The two alphabets (Arabic and Saphalo’s) are compared using the last two of the three criteria mentioned above, the former was found in a better position than the later. Therefore, during his stay in Egypt, Dr. Rashad chose to use the Arabic alphabet temporarily. He made some modifications to make it usable to write in Afaan Oromoo. Basically, he used similar methods used by Anniyyi and Daanniyyi with some additions. Even then, one can use it to write with only by hand. Dr. Rashad was doing that for a purpose. He wanted to go back to the department of foreign languages by making a new claim. “The Oromo language has an alphabet; here is it … Please allow that it can be taught in this University.” His request was again denied. Lack of success in Egypt did not stop him from furthering his efforts to find an appropriate alphabet for Afaan Oromoo.

News, coming from home, removes the entire desire to return back. Those, who left the country in their own way and studied in foreign countries and returned back home, were not received well. Some were imprisoned; others were stopped and arrested, and nobody knew their whereabouts. Because these reasons, returning back was understood as committing suicide. The only option remained was to move to neighboring countries, and settle close to home. At that time, Somalia was found to be better and moving to Somalia became mandatory.

1991 1939 1973 1976 1969

NB: The alphabet the OLF used was borrowed from Hayle Fida. But, the letters (C, D, NY, SH, and PH) were modified to have a short line segment on top of them instead of the inverted accent chapeaux.

Dr. Mohammed Rashad, too, used the symbol “TH” for what is today known as “X” until he met with some leaders of the OLF in Somalia. They liked the simplicity of using Dr. Rashid’s symbols, which they accepted. Finally, after discussion on the matter, both parties agreed to name the symbol “X” to represent the sound it represents today.

The effort to find an appropriate alphabet for the Oromo language was as strong inside the country as it was outside the country. This was at full strength following the fall of the monarch. The military junta that seized power decided to use the Sabean alphabet for Afaan Oromoo. Bariisaa, the only independent Oromo newspaper, was nationalized and made to continue to write using the Sabean alphabet. Bariisaa, since its inception was written in Sabean alphabet. But, it used to publish pages written in the Latin alphabet clearly showing the difference between the two to the general public. Writing Afaan Oromoo using the Latin alphabet was a crime under the Dergue.  Doing that knowing its consequences, I should say, was a heroic action. It could possibly be the triggering factor for the action the government took against the newspaper.

Similarly, the famous artist, activist and nationalist Dr. Ali Birra released his music on literacy in Afaan Oromoo. The relics were clearly calling for the Latin-based Oromo alphabet. An extract from the relic of that song reads as follows:

A, B … jennee-k-kaana; We shall stand by enchating A, B, …

Kanumaan jalqabna; We shall begin just with this

Afaanuma keenyaan katabnee dubbifna. We shall write and read in our language

The message of this song reached all corners of the Oromo nation and qubee began to be taught clandestinely.

At that time, the military government ruling the country launched a literacy campaign, known as “Development Through Cooperation.” High schools and colleges were closed, and the students were sent to rural Ethiopia to teach basic literacy – basically in Amharic and nominally in other languages, including Afaan Oromoo. The Dergue chose and forced the Sabean alphabet for all the languages. However, concerned Oromo nationalists and scholars continued to tell the truth regarding the choice of alphabet for Afaan Oromoo.

Dr. Mohammed Rashad had the desire to share his knowledge with his people, and wanted to go back home, an action which was tantamount to committing suicide and could not be his choice. Instead, he decided to travel to a neighboring country, Somalia, which at that time was relatively convenient to settle and help his people across the border. At that time, Somalia just had a new government, led by an army general, by the name of Gen. Siad Barre, who seized power by overthrowing  President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke. Siad Barre was a left wing politician and  chose to led Somalia on the path of socialism. The new government decided to make the Somali language a written language, and to be a medium in schools and a working language in government offices. The Latin alphabet was chosen and a committee guiding and implementing  the policy was established. Some say that Sheik Mohammed Reshad was a member of that committee, but so far, I did not come across any document proving the truth of that statement.

Upon reaching Somalia, the first thing to do was to find a permanent place for settlement and to get used to the new country i.e. the people and the weather. Soon after that, he got engaged to do things that he believed was good for his people. Dr. Rashad always wanted that his people should learn, know, understand and attain political consciousness. And, he said that the path taking us there has to pass through a gate, and that gate is learning. To teach a people, you need to reach that people. The Oromo people were living far away from where he was; but he always believed that it was possible to reach there by using the media. Therefore, it is absolutely important  to develop the Oromo language into a media language. This means using the print media, such as newspapers, brochures, books, … etc., and reaching  the people by radio and TV. Electronic media is especially suited to reach unlettered or illiterate audience, such as the Oromo society that cannot read and write. We know we have to start with what we have, what we can, and with what we know. The first thing to do was to get airtime for the Oromo language. Sheik Rashad said, “I have some knowledge, no radio station and no money. I believe in my God; I trust in Him; I have no doubt that, he helps me always. With that belief and trust in Allah, I went to meet the authorities of Radio Mogadishu. I requested them to give airtime for the Oromo language. They denied my request based on a series of political and diplomatic reasons. They said it would create trouble with Ethiopia. It would violate the rules and regulations of peaceful co-existence of neighboring countries. I did not accept their decision; giving up was not an option. I continued to return to them again and again, and engaged them by using different methods and reasons until finally I got what I wanted. I got airtime for the Oromo language in Radio Mogadishu. But, they did not allow that the word ‘Oromo’ be used. Because of that, we could not say ‘the following program is in Afaan Oromoo’ – instead we were told to use the phrase  ‘Afaan Qottuu.’ To remember, here is how we said, ‘This is Radio Mogadishu, the voice of the Republic of Somalia; it is now time for programs in Afaan Qottu.’ We were broadcasting for one hour every day. In our program, we had news, health education, religion, short dramas, music, comments, questions of listeners.” After some years, it was changed from ‘Afaan Qottu’ to ‘Afaan Galla,’ and when the regime started war against Ethiopia, it was changed to ‘Afaan Somaali Abbo.’ That radio program entertained and educated the Oromo people; it awakened them, made them conscious and to stand for their right. In general, it created a force ready for the subsequent struggles. The scholar, who struggled and succeeded in making Afaan Oromoo a broadcast language, was Dr. Mahammed Rashad Abdullee.

The efforts he did while he was in Somalia were a continuation of the effort he started in Egypt. The first step was to choose the right alphabet, that became the alphabet of the Oromo language. Before 1974, writing Afaan Oromoo using any alphabet was illegal. During the Dergue’s regime writing Afaan Oromo in any alphabet, except the Sabean, continued to be illegal. Following the fall of the military junta in 1991, things started becoming favorable. Newspapers, magazines, and books were written, published and distributed. Soon, a meeting of Oromo scholars, elders and community representatives was called to discuss and decide on the Oromo alphabet. Accordingly, the Latin based alphabet was accepted unanimously, and the first congress of Caffee Oromiyaa put it into a law. Since then, Afaan Oromoo has been a written language, a school language, and a working language.

— Dr. Sheik Mohammed Reshad’s work that helped overcome the resistance against the use of the Latin alphabet in diaspora is history we will never forget. He attended meetings and presented papers with sufficient explanations and reasons in favor of the Latin alphabet. One scholar who attended those meetings was Mr. Taha Abdi, one of the founding member of the OLF, and a member of the leadership. When asked to comment on the contribution of Dr. Rashad, Mr. Abdi said the following: “The pressure against the Latin alphabet was mounting and reached its peak and everyone was frustrated. At that time, Dr. Rashad came to me and said, ‘No one else has better experience in trying to write Afaan Oromo using the Arabic alphabet. I know all the pros and cons of Arabic alphabet if used for the Oromo language. At this time, by comparing all parameters, there is no alphabet which is better suited than the Latin Alphabet for Afaan Oromo. In this regard I will confront, debate and win all against the Latin alphabet. Don’t worry!'” Upon hearing those words, Mr. Taha Abdi concluded, “all of my frustrations and anger were totally removed.” And he said, he won the debate and had the opposition openly accept the Latin alphabet for Afaan Oromoo.

The first book authored by Sheik Rashad was “FURA AFAAN OROMOO.” It is a textbook on Oromo Alphabet. It teaches how to read and write in Afaan Oromoo. It was written by hand in 1969, and printed two years later in Mogadishu. The book, however, was considered as an act of crime against the territorial policy of the government of Siad Barre, the policy of annexing the land of Ogaden, Eastern and Southern Oromia, and the NFD of Kenya to create Great Somalia. Because of that, the book FURA AFAAN OROMOO, which carried the name Oromo, they decided that the book be removed from the market and the author be arrested. Dr. Rashad chose to stay hiding for some time and avoided the arrest. Finally, some elders intervened, and a negotiated settlement was reached. The Somali government wanted the title of the book be changed to Fura Afaan Abboo, and was printed and distributed under the new title.

Dr. MOHAMMED Reshad authored many books. He was the first author to write children’s book in Afaan Oromoo. He was the first to translate the meaning of the Noble Qur’an into Afaan Oromoo available in both audio and text forms.  Here is the list of some of his books: Hadiisa Afurtamman Nawawii, Seeraafi Naamusa Hajjii, Gadaa Islaamaa (Hundeelee Amantii Islaamaa), Tajwiida Qur’aanaa (Akkaataa Qur’aanni itti qara’amu), Manxiq (Logic), kkf.  He also wrote many books on oral tradition, poems, and others. Because of all these, it will not be an exaggeration to call this man “the father of Oromo writings.”

Sheik Mohammed Rashad sacrificed all of his life for Oromo and Oromummaa. He suffered a stroke while he was in Saudi Arabia and was under treatment for  many years.  Finally, he went back home and lived in the cities of Adama and Dirre Dhawaa. Finally, the divine call came, and he passed away on April 25, 2013.May he attain the mercy of Allah and reside in the garden of bliss.

Dr. Sheik Mahammad Rashad is not a scholar who left his people empty-handed. He put all his works on the Internet at his website he called “Bakka Rashad.” This too makes him the first scholar to build a website www.Rashaad.org and left all his works for generations to come.

You can find the Afan Oromo version of this article here.


Seenaa Barreefama Afaan Oromootiifi Shoora Dr. Sheek Mahammad Rashaad

Dr. Abdulsamad Muhammed


Afaan meeshaa walqunnamtiiti; mallattoo eenymmaatiisi. Akeeka barruu tanaatiif meeshaa walqnnamtii tahuu isaa haafuulleeyfannu. Meeshaa walqunnamtii hoggaa jennu moggaalee lama walitti fida; akka riqichaati isaan tajaajila jechuudha. Kanas bifa lamaan jechuunis: dubbiifi katabbiidhaan tajaajiluu dandaya. Dubbiin sagalee ykn qooqa qofaan  gargaaramanii walitti dubbatanii ykn haasawanii hariiroo walhubantiidhaan xumuramtu qabaachuudha. Haaluma kanaan qubee walitti diranii waan katabbii jennuuniin  wal qunnamtii akkasii qabaachuun hindandayama. Afaan kamuu karaalee lameen himaman  kanaan  hawaasa isaa akka tajaajilu shakkiin hinjirtu. Garuu, ar’allee afaannan baay’eetu sadarkaa dubbii qofatti hornagamee hafee jira. Kanneen gara katabbiititti dhawaataan tarkaanfachaa jiranis muraasaa miti. Afaannan sadarkaa afaan dubbii qofatti bara dheeraa turan keessaa, tokko, Afaan Oromooti. Ragaalee qabnurraa akka hubannutti afaan Oromootiin katabuun erga eegalame hinturre: umriidhaan yoo himne bardhibbee lamaafi cinaa qofa. Qabsoo garasiin godhamte dheertuudha; gufuuleen mudatees baay’eedha.

Akeekni barruu tanaa seenaa barreeffama afaan Oromoo bifa gabaabaadhaan dhiheessuudha. Afaan tokko afaan katabbii tahe jechuun mallattoolee sagaleelee afaan sun keessa jiran bakka bu’an moggaafatee  sirnaan walfaana tarree galchee barruu dhaamsa ittiin dabarfatu ittiin tolchuun dandayame jechuudha.

Mallattooleen afaan tokko ittiin katabuuf mogaafaman waliigalatti QUBEE jennaan. Qubeen afaan tokkoo mallattoolee sagaleelee afaan sun keessa jiran guututti bakka bu’an of keessaa qabaachuu qabdi. Fakkeenyaaf, Afaan Oromoo sagaleelee SODDOMA qaba; soddomman kanarraahi ijaarama jechuudha. Qubeen afaan tokkoof moggaafamtu tan sagaleelee afaan sunii sirriitti bakka buutee laaftutti ittiin barreessuu nama dandeessiftu tahuu qabdi.

Gara akeeka barruu tanaatti ceehuu dura, ifaajee Afaan Oromootiin barreessuuf godhamte ilaalla.  Ragaan harkaa qabnu akka mul’isutti kitaabni duraa Raayya keessatti bara sheekoota Aanniyyi fi Daanniyyi keessa katabame. Kitaabban sun kitaabban manzumaati. Faaruu Rabbiitiifi kan ergamaa Isaati of keessaa qaban jechuudha. Kitaabban sun qalama dibeetaan tuqachaati harkaan barreeffaman. (qalamni gaafasii gobeensa fiinxi qaraa jechuudha). Qubeen ittiin barreeffamaniis qubee Arabaati. Qubeen Arabaa seera dheerina, gabaabina, laafinaafi jabeenya sagalee mul’isan qajeellotti qabdi. Sababa kanaafis namni Afaan Arabaa dubbisuufi katabuu beeku Qubee Afaan Oromoo dafeeti barata; katabuufi dubbisuus laaftutti qomatti galfata. Qubeen Arabaa tuni immoo, Afaan Oromootiif hanquudha.  mallattoolee sagaleelee afaan Oromoo baay’inaan 6 (jaha) tahan bakka bu’an of keessaa hinqabdu. Isaanis:  c, ch, dh, g, ny, ph [q x ?]  hinqabdu jechuudha. Isaan kanaaf mallattoolee jiranirratti waa dabalanii mallattoo hahhaaraya itti tolchuun hindandayama.  Meeshaalee katabbii  afaan Arabaatiif tolfamaniin afaan Oromoo katabuun ykn maxxansuun hindandayamu. haatahu jennee yoo itti seennelle waan baay’ee feesisa: meeshaalee barruutiifi kan mana maxxansaa bifa haarayaan qoranii tolchuu, maallaqa guddaa dhimma kanaaf barbaachisuus diinnagdee biyyaa agabsanii garasitti ramaduu, hundaa’ol immoo mootummaa dhimma kana akka dantaa ofiititti fudhattee hojiirra oolchuuf qaamaa qalbiidhaan sossootu aangoorra jiraachuun dirqama taha. Kanaafuu ifaajeen garasiin godhamaa turte hundi hawwii milkiidhaan wal hingarre taateeti hafte.

Tattaaffiin itti aantu warra kiristaanaatin godhamte. Toora xumura bardhibbee 19ffa pirotestaantoonni warra Orophaa “Macaafa Qulqulluu” gara afaan Oromootti hiikanii maxxansiisuu fedhan. Hojii suniifis Oromticha Oniisimos Nasiib (Abbaa Gammachiis jedhaniin muudan. Anisimoos Nasiib teessoo isaa magaalaa Asmaraa biyya Ertiraa godhatee Macaafa ulqulluu Afaan Amaaraatirraa gara afaan Oromootti hiikee bara 1886 keessa achumatti maxxamfames. Kitaabni sun “Macaafa Qulqulluu” jedhama. Kan hiikees “Anisimos Nasiib, nama biyya Oromoo’ jedha. Qubee Saabaatiin barreeffame. Qubeen Saabaa tanuma Afaan Amaaraatiifi afaan Tigree ittiin barreeffamtu tana. Qubeen tuni sababoota lamaaf afaan Oromootiif mijjooma hinqabne. Sababni tokko, seera dheerina, laafina, gabaabina fi jabeenya sagalee mul’isu hinqabdu. Sababni lammadaa, dubbachiiftoota “vowels”  torba qofa qabdi; afaan Oromoo immoo, 10 qaba; kurnanuuti barbaada. Torban qubeen saabaa qabdu keessaahis lama sagalee afaan Oromoo waliin wal hingitan. Kanaafuu, qubeen Saabaatiin Afaan Oromoo katabuun hindandayamu.

Tattaaffiin Sadaffaan tan qubee Laatiiniin godhamte taati. Tanas bakka lamatti qoonnee laalu dandeenya. Tokko kan Lola addunyaa kan lammaffaatiin dura taheefi kan Lola lammaffaa keessaafi achiin boodaati taha. Tattaaffiin duraa ammas tanuma warra Orophaa (France, German, Italy) fedhii amantii babal’isuu qabaniin godhamte taati. Kitaabban xixiqqaa amantii mataskaana pirotestaantii ykn kan kaatolikii barsiisan qubee Laatin tanuma afaan faransaa, afaan Jarman ykn afaan Xaalyaanif moggaafaman  jijjiirama tokkollee osoo itti hingodhin Afaan Oromoo ittiin kataban. Seera afaan isaaniitiin afaan Oromoo barreessuu yaalan. Rakkoolee gararreetti gara dheerina, gabaabina, laafina fi jabeenya sagalee jennee ibsine sun qaban. [sagalee takka qubee adda addaa tin bakka buusuu fkf  ny —> gn, …]

Kan itti aanu tattaaffii Lola Addunyaa kan Lammaffaa keessa taate taha. Kuni gadaa qubee afaan Oromootiif  aduun baate, gadaa qormaata karaa saayinsii afaaniitiin   maalummaan afaan kanaa sirnaan itti hubatame jechuu nidandeenya. Tattaaffii ogeeysa saayinsii afaanii Martin Moreno warra biyya Xalyaaniitiin godhame taha. Kitaaba saa  kan mataduree “Gramatica della Lingua Galla” jechuudhaan moggaasees bara 1939 keessa maxxansiise. Nama yeroo duraatiif xiinsaga (phonology), xiin-unkaa (morphology) fi walfaanoommii jechootaa qajeellotti hubate waan taheef gadaa suniin “Gadaa Moreno” jedhee yoon moggaase dogongora hintahu.


Lola addunyaa kan lammaffaa booda haala ilmaan biyyaa barnootaaf gara biyya alaa itti imaltaawaniitu dhalate. Akkaataa biyyaa itti bahaniin immoo,murnoota lamatti qodaman. Murni tokko warra hiree barnootaa bifa qaari’aatiin (scholarship) ykn motummaadhaan ergamanii biyya alaatti deemani. Jarri kuni warra barnoota sadarkaa lammaffaa biyya eessatti fixatanii digrii duraatiif alatti imaltaawan ykn kanneen digrii duraa qaata biyya keessatti univarsitiirraa eebbifamanii digrii Maastersiitiif ykn Doktaraatiif deeman of keessaa qaba.  Isaan kuni biyya itti deeman, universitii itti baratan,  maal akka baratan, yeroo hammam keessatti barnoota sun akka xumuran, maallaqa ittiin jiraataniifi meeqa akka argatan beekaniiti roophilaadhaan gara biyya itti baratan sunitti imaltaawan. Jarri kun yeroo baay’ee gara biyyoota Orophaa ykn  gara Ameerikaati dhaqan. Garri caalu, Ilmaan Amaaraa haa tahan malee, ilmaan sabootaafi sablammiilee birootis hammi tokko hinjiran.

Barattoonni hiree tana argatanii barnootaaf gara Orophaa dhaqan barnoota qofa osoo hintahin nashaaxa siyaasaatis hinhoratan. Siyaasaa gara bitaatti conqoltutti waan amananiif   bitaaleeyyii yaada maarkisistii ykn sooshalistiitiin masakamuufi biyyaas ittiin maskuu kajeelan tahan. Isaan kuni, dura Waldaya Barattoota Tophiyaa kan Orophaa  jechuun beekkamu ijaarratan. Ilmaan Oromoo miseensoota waldaya kanaa tahan keessaa, kanneen Afaan Oromoo gara afaan barruutitti akka tarkaanfatu hawwaniifi hawwii tanaas dhugoomsuuf hojii nama boonsitu hojjetaniifi seenaanis dagachuu hinqabneetu jira. Isaan kuniis Haylee Fidaatiifi Abdullaahi Yuusuf turan. Lameen keessaa   Qubeefi barrKufiinsa Haylesillaasee booda    kan qooda guddaa qabu Haylee Fidaati. Qubee Martin Moreno fudhatanii jijjiirama xiqqaa itti godhuudhaan ittiin barreessuu jalqaban. Qubeen isaaniitiis  kunoo tana.  Qubeefi seera Martin Moreno lafa kaayetti jijjiirama xiqqaa itti godhaniiti kunoo qubee kanatti aantuun as bahan:


Warri Orophaa kuni garuu, waa lama dagatan. Laageen (’) tan namni garii hudhaa ykn hamzaa jedhuun  phoneme (dhamsaga) of dandeesse tahuu dagataniiti keessaa hanqisan. Qabxiin lammaffaan Qubee tanaan biyyatti galanii ittiinis barreessuuf hiree yoo argatan makiinaan barruutiifi manni maxxansaa kanaaf qophaawan jiraachuu dhabuudha dagatan.  Akkasiinuu qubee tana lafa hinkeenye. Bara 1973-1974 keessa kitaabban lama biyya Jarmanitti maxansiisan. Matadureen kitaabban lameenii: tokko Hirmaata Dubbii Afaan Oromoo kan jedhu yoo tahu kaan immoo Bara Birraan Barihe jedha. Kitaabni duraa, akkuma maqaan isaatuu himutti kitaaba seera afaaniiti. Seera afaanii kan bu’uraa bifa gabaabaadhaan dhiheessa.  Kitaaba kana qopheessuurratti maqaan baay’ee dhawamu Haylee Fidaa haatahu malee, jarri kaanis qooda hinqaban. Kan Bara Birraan Barihe jedhu immoo, roorroo sirni nafxanyaa ummatarraan gayu bifa diraamaatiin dhiheessa. Kitaabban lameen kuni jabeenya fi laafina, dheerina fi gabaabina sagaleelee afaan Oromoo yeroo duraatiif qajeellotti adda baasanii mul’isan waan tahaniif seenaa barreeffama Afaan Oromoo keessatti bakka guddaadha qaban.  Jarri kitaabban kana qopheesse kuni kufiinsa mootummaa Haylesillaasee booda, dhaaba siyaasaa “MEISON” jedhu moggaafatanii gara biyyaa deebi’an. Maqaan “MEISON” Kottoonfii maqaa Afaan Amaaraatiin dhaaba saaniitiif moggaafataniiti (“Mellaa Itiyoophiyaa Soshalist Niqinnaaqee”) Afaan Oromootti (Sochii Soshalistii Idil Tophiyaa) jechuudha.

Yoos sochiin ABO tiis qaata jalqabde. Hoggansa Jaarraa Abbaagadaatiin [Elemo?] qabsoon hidhannoo dhandhaaramte. Waraanni ijaaramuus barnoota siyaasaa, leenjii lolaatiifi barnoota qalamaa akka argatu, barnoonni kuniis afaan Oromootiin akka kennamu murteeffame. Kanaafuu, Qubee warri MEISON fide guutumatti fudhatan.  Makiinaa Barruutiin barreessuuf immoo, makiinaaleen qubee tanaaf qoramanii tolfaman hinjiran. Makiinaan jirtu tanuma afaan Ingiliizii qofa. Makiinaan Afaan Ingiliizii Qubee Haylee Fidaa ittiin barreessuuf hinmijjooytu. Barkoo ykn baallaa xixiqqoo mallattoolee garii  gararreerra (gubbaarra) jiran harriiqqaadhaan bakka buusanii barreessuu jalqaban.  Kuniis golollee waraqaa ooftu oliifi gad qabuudhaan harriiqqaa ykn qabxii itti godhuu dirqama tahe. Kuniis tarree yaa’a barruu jallisuufi barruus buburreeysuu fide. Yeroo dheertuu fudhachuu malee rakkoon barruu fokkiftu mul’achuun dhimma furmaata saffee itti barbaadan taate.

Gaafas kitaabni “Fura Afaan Oromoo” kan Sheek Mahammad somaaliyaarraa hulluuqee gara biyya teenyaa seenuu haahimamu malee, harka namayyuu gayuu hindandeenye. Garuu, makiinaa barruu tan biyya keessa jirtuun rakkoo malee ittiin barreessuun akka dandayamu hoggaa dhagayan barbaachaaf karaa bu’an. Dr. Mahammad Rashaad qunnamuun dirqama tahe. Akkasitti booddee magaalaa guddittii biyya Soomaaliyaa moggaasatti wal qunnamanii haasawaafi marii booda Qubee Dr. Mahammad Rashaad fudhatanii ittiin fayyadamuu jalqaban. Qubeen ar’a manbarnoottan keessatti ilmaan Oromiyaa ittiin barataniifi waajjiroota Oromiyaa keessattiis ittiin hojjetan qubee suni. Qubeen sun kitaaba mataduree “Fura Afaan Oromoo” jedhuun bara 1969 keessa dura harkaan barreeffameeti ganna lama booda  yeroo duraatiif maxxamfame. Namni  kana barreessees Sheek Dr. Mahammad Rashaadi.  Qubee Afaan Oromoo bifa arra qabdu kana  Sheek Mahammad Rashaad Abdulleetu itti abbaa. Kanatti aansee Sheek Rashaad eenyu akka tahan beekuuf akkaataa biyyaa itti bahaniifi maal akka hojjetan seenaa isaanii hamma tokko dhiheessuun yaala.

Oromoota barnootaaf biyya alaa dhaqan keessaa, murni lammadaa warra fedhii barnotaaf qabaniin ka’anii ofumaan daangaa qaxxaamuranii biyyaa bahan of keessaa qaba. Jarri kuni mootummaa isaan afeertee qaariyaa isaaniif baaftees   tan irraa kafaltee isaan ergitees hinjirtu. Ka galaa (sinqii) qabu gala saa baadhatee, kan hinqabne immoo, dhoortoo kadhachaa miilaan daangaa biyyattii tarkaanfatanii, dura gara biyya ollaa dhaqan. Barnoota barbaacha biyyaa bahuu malee, maal akka baratan, biyya tamitti akka baratan, yeroo hammamiif akka baratan, maallaqa qubsumaaf, nyaataafi uffataaf barbaachisu hinqaban; eeyurraa akka argatanis himbeekan. Kanneen haala kanaan afaan bineensaa bu’anii, dhukkuba hamaadhaan qabamanii ykn beelaafi dheebuudhaan du’a mudatanii  karatti hafan baay’eedha. Kanneen lubbuun isaanii eewalamte keessaa, garii hiree barnootaatin wal dhabanii biyya ollaa miilli saanii dura ejjete sun qubachuufi mu’oya (kuulii) dalagachaa of jiraachuisuuf dirqaman. Muraasa imala isaanii itti fufanii fagaatanii deemanis biyyoota Baha Jiddugaleysaa gayaniiti imala saanii xumuran. Warri haala kanaan biyyaa bahan hundi muslimoota sabaafi sablammii garagaraatirraa dhalatan tahuu isaanii beekuun gaariidha.   Oromoota hiree akkanaatiin miilaan biyyaa bahanii fedhii barnootaaf qaban argatanii sadarkaa digrii duraatiifi tan lammadaa argachuudhaan eebbifaman keessaa, tokko, Dr. Muhammad  Rashaad Abdullee ti.

Sheek Muhammad Rashaad Baha oromiyaa, Godinaa Harargee Dhihaa, Koonyaa Carcar Laga Arbaatitti dhalatan. Hoggaa Umriin barnootaaf geeyse barnoota amantii Islaamaa abbaa saanii jalatti barachaati guddatan. Dr. Muhammad Rashaad barataa faxina turan. Kanaafuu, barnoota bu’uraatiifi kan sunitti aanu yeroo gabaabduu keessatti xumuran. Kana malees, sabboonaa roorroon sabni Oromoo sirna nafxanyaa jalatti mudate isaan anaannachiiftu turan. Hoggaa umriidhaan dardarummaa guutan waahila isaanii tokko wajjiin miilaan Laga Arbaatii ka’anii, dura  magaalaa Ciroo gayan. Achirraahis tirachaa magaalaa Harar gayan. Waan Ciroofi Hararitti argan laalchisee bara 1992 keessa yeroo duraatiif gara biyyaa hoggaa dhufan gaaffii fi deebiin godheef  keessatti akkana jedhan: “Hoggan magaalaa Ciroo gaye, ashkara Amaaraa kan ‘irgiccaa’ dhiituun arke. Magaalaa Hararittiis waanuma akkasiitiin arke. Yoo anaatii ashkarri Oromoo miidhu bakkuma lameen kana jira. Kanaafuu anaafi waahilli kiyya biyyaa baanee biyya Islaamaa dhaqnee rakkoo sabni keenya qabu itti himnee hidhannoo akka nuuf kennan kadhanna. Achirraa hidhannee bombii harkatti qabannee tokkoon keenya gara magaalaa Harar, tokko ammoo, gara magaalaa Ciroo sunitti deebinee  yeroo takka kessatti Ashkaroota bakka lameenuu jiran bombiidhaan daaraa gooneeti saba keenya bilisoomsina” jedheetiin yaade. Yemmuu biyyaa bahaniis akeeka lama qabaachaati turan. Akeekni duraa barachuu yoo tahu kan lammadaa biyyatti deebi’anii diina saba miidhu murruq godhuudha.

Biyyaa ka’aniiti miilaan dura Jibuuti dhaqan. Achirraa dooniidhaan Yaman seenan. Yamanirraahis miilaani Su’uudiyaa dhaqanii magaalaa Madiinatul Munawwaraa qubatan. Hamtuun amna dheeraa kana keessatti qunnamaniis baay’ee nama sodaachifti; lubbuu Rabbi eewalami jedheen qaban malee, nama umriidhaan turee as gayu tahuun akka jabaadha. Yeroo hamma tokkoof Su’uudiyaa taa’aniiti booddee gara Suuriyaatti deeman. Achitti barnoota saanii yoo xumuraniis xalayaa ragaa takkaan malee geggeeffaman. Yoos gara Misratti qaceelanii Universitii Al Azharitti galmeeffaman.  Achitti Digrii Duraa, itti aanseetis Digrii Lammaffaa argachuudhaan eebbifaman. Barnoonni baratanis guddichi (major) barnoota amantii haatahu malee, barnoota hawaasaa (Sociology), xiinqalbii (Psychology), Manxiq (Logic), xiinqoonqa (linguistics) barataniiti jiran.

Dr. Muhammad Rashaad hayyuu hayyummaa saa beekkoomsaan mirkaneessa qofa miti. Sabboonaa hojiidhaan maalummaa saa mul’iseesi. Universitii Al Azhar kutaa afaanii keessa damee afaannan alagaa itti barsiifamuutu jira. Afaannan achitti barsiifaman keessaa, tokko, afaan Amaaraati. Dr. Rashaad suutatti itti dhihaatanii dubbiin dhugaa tahuu hoggaa hubatan seerumaani “Afaan Oromootis nuu naqaa” jedhanii gaaffii saanii dhiheeffatan. Gaaffiin saanii hoggaa fudhatama dhabde “Maalif” akka didamte gaafatan. “Afaan Oromoo Qubee hinqabu; kanaaf dinne” jechuudhaan deebii laataniif.  Haalli kuni hayyicha kana garamitti akka bobbaase tilmaamuun nama hindhibu. Gadaan achiin duraa tanuma ofiif barachuuf itti tattaafatan turte; tan achiin boodaa immoo, saba saa barsiisuuf tattaaffii adda citii hinqabne itti jalqabani. Afaan Oromoo qubee hinqabu; qubee dhabuun kabajaa afaannan biroo argatan isa dhabsiisuun hedduu itti dhagayame. Qubee qabaatee afaan ittiin barreeffamu tahuu akka qabu itti amane. Dirqama kana ofitti fudhatee tarkaanfii saa jalqabe. Tattaaffii Sheek Bakrii Saphaloo qubee Afaan Oromoo uumuudhaan godhaniifi sheekkaniifi darasoota faana Aanniyyiifi Daanniyyi bu’uudhaan Qubee Arabaatin Afaan Oromoo barreessan qoratanii tolaafi gufuu qaban adda baafatanii hubachuu jalqaban. Ulaagaalee barbaachisoo fi murteessoo jedhaniin hunda madaaluu itti fufan. Ulaagaaleen kuniis:

  1. Mallattoon filatamtu tan sagalee Afaan Oromoo sun guututti bakka buutu tahuu,
  2. Namni qubee sun barsiisu laaftutti argamuu; bakkayyuus jiraachuu.
  3. Makiinaaleen ittiin katabaniifi ittiin maxxansaniis lafa jiraachuu

Ulaagaalee sadeen kanaan Qubee lameenuu hoggaa madaalan lameenuu fullahuu ykn bakka gayuu hindandeenye; lameenuu hinkufan.

Qubeen Arabaa ulaagaalee sadeenuu guutuu hindandeenye. Gara mallattootiin afaan Oromootiif hintaatu; hinhanqatti. Mallattoolee sagaleelee Afaan Oromoo jahaaf bakka bu’uu dandayan hinqabdu. Mallattooleen jahanis kanneen akkaataa ammaatti kataban kana: “G, C, CH, DH, NY, PH” . Hanquu tana ibsuuf fakkeenyuma Dr. Rashaad natti himanin dhiheessa. Hima akkanatti barreessinu kana “Dhagaa caphsii cirracha nyaadhu”  qubee Arabaatiin barreessuun hindandayamu. Jijjiirama tokko tokko itti godhuudhaan sagaleelee tana akka bakka bu’an gochuun hindandayama. haatahu immoo, makiinaan akkasitti qoramtee tolfamte lafa hinjirtu; beekaan beekkoomsa kana qomaa qabaatee yoggasumatti barsiisuu dandayuus hinjiru. Kanaafuu, Afaan Oromoo ittiin barreessuuf filachuus moggaafachuus hindandeenyu.

Hayyoota Oromoo kanneen Afaan Oromootiif qubee qoranii qopheessuuf tattaaffii godhan keessaa, kan duraatiifi guddichi, Sheek Bakrii Saphalooti. Qubeen Saphaloo qubee ajaa’ibaati. Qubee takkittiin Afrikaa keessatti dhalattees isii tana. Qubee ilma Oromootiin qoramtee Oromiyaa keessatti dhalatte tahuu isiitiin malees,  qubee saba Oromoo saba qubee ofii qabu taasifte waan taateef ayaa hundi keenya ittiin boonnu, tan   yaadqalbii sabaa ar’aas jajjabeeysituufi niis dagaasituun jedha. Asirratti waa himee taruun fedha. Qubeen Saabaa Qubee biyya Yamanitti dhalattee warra Habashaatiin  gara Afrikaa as goodaante malee Afrikaa keessatti hindhalanne. Ragaalee baay’ee tarree galchinee dhiheessuus ni dandeenya. Akeekni barruu tanaa garuu, kana miti.  Kanaafis kanumaan irra tarree hegere hoggaa feesise itti deebina.

Qubeelee lameenuu tan Arabaatiifi tan Saphaloo gara ulaagaalee lameen irraa boodaatin yoo laalle Arabaatu irra wayya. Kanaafuu Dr. Rashaad osoo Misra jiranuu hamma qubeen irra wayyaa argamtutti  yeroodhaaf  qubee Arabaatitti fayyadamuu turan. Maluma Aanniyyi fi Daanniyyi  jalqabanitti  jijjiirama tokko tokko itti godhanii bifa Afaan Oromoo ittiin barreessuuf maltu taasisan.  Akkasiinuu harkaan malee, makiina barruutiin barreessuun hindandayamne.  Afaan Oromoo qubee qabaachisuuf tattaafachuun isaa akeeka qaba. Akeekni isaatis Univarsitii Al-Azhar damee afaannan alagaa sunitti deebi’ee warra afaan Oromoo Qubee hinqabu  jedheen suniin kunoo“Afaan Oromoo Qubee hinqabaa akka ittiin barsiifamu amma nuu hayyamaa” jedhee  afaan Omootinis  akka barsiifamu gochuudha. “Harki diddaaf deemu daduu hinseenu” jetti Oromoon. Jarri ammas hindidan; tattaaffiin Sheek Mahammad Rashaad Misratti gochaa turees milkaawuu hindhabde. Tattaaffiin Afaan Oromootiif Qubee barbaaduuf jalqabe ammoo, hamilee finiintuufi fedhii cimtuudhaan itti fufte.

Oduun biyyaa dhuftu yaada biyyatti deebi’uu jedhu haqanqoorteeti nama keessaa fixxi. Warri ofiin biyyaa bahee, alatti baratee biyyatti deebi’e hiree gaariin isaan hinqunnamne. Garii hinhidhaman; garii achi buuteen isaanii hinbeekkamtu. Sabbaba kanaafis biyyatti deebi’uun akka harka ofiitiin du’aaf dabarsanii of kennuutti hubatame. Malli hafe biyya ollaa dhaqanii biyyatti dhihaatanii jiraachuu tahe. Biyyoota ollaa keessaahis Somaaliyaan irra wayyaa taatee waan mul’atteef garasitti godaanuun dirqama tahe.



Qubeen ABOn dura ittiin fayyadame kanneen tarree galfaman sun (C, D, NY, S, PH) gararreerraa harriiqqaa ykn sarara xiqqaa qabu. Kan Haylee fidaa ammoo, baallaa qarri lameen ol garagalan ofirraa qaban. Qubeen arra mallattoo “x” tanaan bakka buufamte ammoo, T barreessaniiti qabxii xiqqoo miiljaleerra kaayan.

Dr. Mahammad Rashaadis hamma warra ABOtiin wal hinqunnaman mallattoon qubee arra “X” jennuun tanaaf “TH” katabuudha turan. Booddee marii bal’oo godhaniin qubee Ingiliizii tan lafatti hafte “X” (tan eks) jedhaniin sun maqaa arra qubee Oromoo keessatti qabdu itti moggaasaniiti garri lachuu fudhatee ittiin fayyadame.

Qubee Afaan Oromoo ittiin barreessuuf toltu moggaasuuf biyya keessattiis alattis qabsoo ciccimtuu tu godhame. Qabsoofi tattaaffiin tuniis jijjiirama kufiinsa mootummaa Haylesillaasee booda jajjabaatteeti itti fufte. Mootummaan Dargii  Afaan Oromoo Qubee Saabaatiin  akka barreeffamu murteessite.  Gaazexaa Bariisaa dhuunfaadhaan maxxamfamaa ture ni dhaaltee qabeenya mootummaa tahee akka itti fufu godhe. Gaazexaan Bariisaa dhaloota isiitirraa qubee saabaatiin barreeffamaa turte. Akkasiinuu  Bariisaan  barruulee qubee Laatiiniin barreeffamanii maxxamfaman fuula gariirratti baasuu turte; hanqina qubeen saabaa qabduufi mijjooma qubeen Laatin Afaan Oromootiif qabdu basaqeeysatti ibsuudhaan dubbistootaaf dhiheessuudha turte. Bara Dargii qubee Laatiiniin barreessuu dhiisii yaaduunuu yakka guddaa ture. Ob. Mahdii Haamid Muudee, editara fi qopheessaan gaazexaa Bariisaa, osoo kana beekuu soda takkaan malee, qubee Laatiniin barreessee akka raabsamtu godhee dhaamsa sun ummataan gayeeti jira. Sababni  Dargiin gaazexaa Briisaa humnaan fudhatee mootummaa jalatti akka maxxamfamtu itti godhees kanuma.

Haaluma akkasiitiin wallisaan, sabboonaafi qabsaawaan Oromoo beekkamaan, Dr. Alii Birraa bara 1976-tti akkana jechuudhaan wallise:


Qubeen Oromoo qubee Laatin akka taatu sodaa malee wallise; kaaseeta maxxanseeti raabse; dhaamsa kanaasummataaf labsuudhaan aantummaa Qubee Oromootiif qabu ifatti ibsee kumaatamoota barsiisee qabsoodhaaf kakaase.

Yeroo sun mootummaan Dargii afaan Oromootiif Qubee Saabaa moggaafte. Kitaabban barnoota bu’uraa ni qopheessite;  duula beekkoomsaafi guddinaa jechuudhaan barattoonni biyyattii akka duulanii ummata ijaataniifi barsiisan ni labsite.  Hayyootaafi sabboontoonni dantaa Oromootiif anaannatan hundi qubeelee lafa jiran keessaa tan mijjooma qabdu qubee Laatin qofa tahuu barsiisuufi falmachuu isaanii itti fufan.

Dr. Muhammad Rashaad beekkoomsa biyya alaatti baratan saba saaniitiif qooduuf biyyatti deebi’uun harka ofiitiin du’aaf of kennuu itti taate. Misraa deemuun dirqama; malli biyyatti siqanii qubachuuf filmaanni biyya takka qofa tahe. Biyti gaafasitti irra wayyaa Soomaaliyaa waan taateef garasitti godaanaan. Yeroon yeroo J/ Ziyaad Barree mootummaa Abdirashiid Ali Sharmaarkee fonqolchee aangoo itti dhunfate turte. Ziyaad Barreetis siyaasaa gara bitaa awaddu ofitti fudhatee biyyattii daandii soshalistiirra kaaye. Afaan Soomalee afaan barruu tahee akka ittiin barsiifamuufi ittiinis hojjetamu ni murteessan. Qubeen filataniis Qubee Laatiin taate. Koreen dhimma kana geggeessitee fiixa baaftuus ni jaaramte. “Sheek Mohammed Rashaadiis miseensa koree sunii akka tahu godhame” warri jedhu ni jiran. Ani garuu, ragaa dhugooma waan kanaa mirkaneessu ammoo, hamma ammaatti hin argine.

Somaaliyaatti hoggaa godaanan wanni duraa bakka qubatan qabaachuudha. Itti aansee biyyaafi qilleensa biyyaatiin wal fudhachuudha. Sun booda osoo hin turin waan sabaaf tolu argamsiisuuf tattaaffii isaanii itti fufan. Dr. Mahammad Rashaad ummnni bal’aan akka baratee, waa hubatee, dammaqee bayyanatu hawwan. Karaan garasitti nu geessu karra qaba; karri suniis barnoota jedhan.  Hawaasa Oromoo kan halaala jiru kana halaalaa barsiisuuf  afaan Oromoo afaan Miidiyaa akka tahu gochuu feesisa. Kana jechuun: gaazexaa, kitaabbaniifi barruulee ummanni irraa baratu maxxansanii raabsuu; raadiyoofi TV keessaan ummata gurra ykn gurraafi ija ummataa gayuu barbaachisa. Hawaasa dubbisuufi barreessuu hin beekne kan akka hawaasa Oromoo hoggaa tahe wanni miidiyaa elektronikaa caalu hin jiru. Raadiyoo keessaan dhaamsa qabdu bifa sagaleetiin akka dhagayutti gara gurra saa erguu, ykn TV keessaan dhaamsa qabdu bifa suursaga  (suuraa fi sagalee) taheen gara argaafi dhageeytii ummataatiif qilleensarraan itti erguudha.  Namni waan qabuun, waan dandayuuniifi waan lafa jiruun jalqaba. Tattaaffiin jalqabaa afaan Oromoo raadiyoona akka seenu gochuudha. Sheek Rashaad kana hoggaa himan akkana jedhan: “Ani beekkoomsa xiqqaa tokkoon qaba; Raadiyoo hinqabu; maallaqa bahii hojii tanaatiif feesisuus hinqabu.

Abdiin kiyya Tokkicha na uume qofa. Akka na gargaaruus shakkii hinqabu. Kanaafuu Isa abdadhee Isarra of kaayeetiin qondaalootafi itti gaafatamoo Raadiyo Maqdishoo bira dhaqee Afaan Oromootis akka nuu naqan itti iyyadhe. Sababoota siyaasaa, kan diplomaasiitiifi kanneen adda addaa dhiheessuudhaan “Lakki, lakki. Kuni Tophiyaa wajjiin wal nu lolchiisa; seera akkaataa ollaan waliin itti jiraatu ni cabsa. “Kuni hin tahu” naan jedhan. Ani garuu, hifaataan maleetti itti deddeebi’ee,  yaada fi mala garagaraa itti dhiheessuudhaan tura keessa deebii jaalannu nuuf kennan. Afaan Oromoo raadiyoo maqdishoo ni seene. Haa tahu ammoo, Afaan Oromo jechuu nuf hayyamuu ni didan; diduu qofa miti, nuus ni dhoowwan. Faraqaa Afaan Qottuu” akka jennu nutti himan. Raadiyoonni sun arra hin jiru; yaadannoofis kunoo akkanatti jalqabuu ture: “Kun Raadiyoona Maqdisho qooqa Jumhuriya Dimoqraasii Somaalee faraqaa Afaan Qottuti) jechuu ture. Booddee tura keesaa ammoo, “Kun Raadiyoona Maqdisho qooqa Jumhuriya Dimoqraasii Somaalee faraqaa Afaan Gaallaati” jechuutti jijjiirame.Guyyatti sa’aa takka dabarsuu ture; qophiilee adda addaa: oduu addunyaa, gorsa fayyaa, barnoota amantii, haasawa manguddoo, walleefi muziqaa, kkf ).  Raadiyoonni sun ummata ni gammachiise; ni barsiise; ni bayyanachiise; ummata dantaa ofiitiif falmatu ni taasise. Bifa waliigalaatiin humna qabsoo itti aantuuf qophaawe ni uumte.  Hayyichi Afaan Oromoo afaan raadiyoo akka tahuu tattaafatees Dr. Mahammed Rashaad Abdulleeti.

Tattaaffiin hayyichi kun Somaaliyaa keessa osoo jiruu godhe itti fufa qabsoo Misratti jalqabamte tahuu dagachuu hin feesisu. Tuniis Afaan Oromoo Afaan ittiin Barruutiifi afaan barnootaa gochuudha. Qubee ulaagaalee sadeen gararreetti ibsaman guututti qabdu moggaasuu, mariidhaaf dhiheessuu, hoggaa fudhatamtees Qubee Oromoo tahuu sii murteessuudha.  Tattaaffiin garanaan biyya keessatti godhamaa turte gufuu adda addaati mudatte. Gufuun duraa warra Afaan oromoo  afaan katabbii (afaan barruu) akka hin taane fedhan hunda of keessaa qaba. Isaanis mootummaa Nafxanyaa, nafxanyoota yaada mootummaatti amananiifi kanneen yaadqalbii suniin masakaman hunda of keessaa qaba. Jarri kun bifa dandayan hundaan afaan Oromoo afaan barruu akka hin taane gochuuf tattaafatan. Hamma bara 1974 Qubee fedheen afaan Oromoo barreessuun yakka ykn wanjala ture. Ergas ammoo, bara Dargii keessa qubee Saabaatiin malee, qubee biraatiin afaan Oromoo barreessuun yakka tahuun itti fufe. Arra garuu, seeraan murteeffame: Oromiyaa keessatti afaan Oromoo afaan barruu, afaan hojiitiifi afaan barnootaati. Murtii tanaas walgahii Duraa tan Caffee Oromiyaatu murteesse.

Gufuuleen tattaaffii tana heewasan biyya alaattis hin hanqanne. Humnoota gaafa Soomaaliyaan qubee Laatin moggaafatte dura dhaabbate suniitu afaan Oromootis heewasuu jalqabe. Jarri kuni akka warra Habashaatti qubee Saabaa haa tahu hin jenne. Waa mara ija amantiitin laalan; qubee Arabaa filachuu dhabuun akka waan  amantii diduutti hubatan. Gariin isaanii tafsiira (hiikkaa) haaraya tolfataniiti “Laatiin jechuun “Laa diin” ykn (Amantiin hinjirtu) jechuu waan taheef irraa dhaabbadhaa” jedhan. Jarri kuni qubeen Arabaa Diin-Islaam dura, gaafa jaahiliyyaa  dhaamsa zamana jaahiliyyaa ittiin barreeffamaa akka turte dagachuun isaanii ni mala. Garii ammoo, jaalala amantii ofiitiif qabaniin qubee Arabaatiifi afaan Arabaa bay’ee jaalatan. Qubee Arabaa afaan Oromootiif moggaasuun amantiin sun akka babal’atuuf haala mijjeessuu akka tahetti amanan.

Jaarmayni dhiibbaa akkanaa gochaa turte takka Raabixatul Islaamiyyaadha. Raabixaan tuni biyyoota ollaa (Suudaaniifi  Soomaaliyaa)  keessatti qubeen Arabaa afaan Oromootiif akka moggaafamtu dhiibbaa cimaa gochaati turte. Dhibbaa tana fashalsiisuuf tattaaffiin Dr. Mahammad Rashaad Soomaaliyaa keessatti godhan kan seenaan dagattuu miti. Walgayiilee garanaan godhamaa turanirratti argamuudhaan ibsa bal’aa raga gayaa diduun hindandayamne iin waldhiheessaati turan.  Hayyoota gaafas tattaaffii sun keessatti hirmaatan keessaa, tokko, Ob. Xaahaa Abdii akkana jedhan: “Dhiibbaan Raabixaan gootu cimtee hunda keenya hifachiiftee abdii nu kutachiisuu bira geyseeti turte. Haala sun keessatti anaa garaan na gubatee rakkachutti jiru Sheek Mahammed Rashaad :  “Qubee Arabaatiin afaan Oromoo katabuu narra ka moyxannoo itti qabu hin jiru.Rakkoo, dhibdeefi hanquu qubeen tun qabdu ka beeku ana. Yeroo ammaatti garayyuun madaallee hoggaa laallu qubeen qubee Laatinirra afaan Oromootiif mijjooytu hinjirtu. Garanaan anaatu warra Raabixaatin falmaati abshir je’aa” jechuudhaan garaa nu qabbaneesse” jechuudhaan ragaa bahe. Akkuma jedhanitti Dr. Rashaad muggutii Raabixaatirra aananii barreeffamni Afaan Oromoo bifa isaan maluun daandii guddinaarra akka qaceelu qooda daaddaa hin qabne gumaachaniiti jiran.

Tattaaffii Qubee afaan Oromoo moggaasuuf godhamte keessatti kitaabni duraa “FURA AFAAN OROMOO” yoo tahu bara 1969-itti Maqdishotti barreefame. Kitaabni sun mootummaa Somaaliyaatin hin fudhatamne. Inumaatuu bifa suniin maxxamfamuun isaatuu akka yakkaatti ilaalame Sheek Rashaad qabanii hidhuuf warra nagaya eegu itti bobbaasan. Jaarsi garuu, mimmiliqaa jiraateeti manguddoo keessaan ofirraa qabbaneessee fedhii isaaniitis hubate. Gaafas Somaaliyaan Ogaadeeniifi lafa Oromiyaa kutaa bahaatiifi kan kibbaarraa ciqqaawwatanii muratanii biyya “Soomaaliyaa Guddittii” (Soomaali Weyn) ijaaruuf shakaran. Eenyummaa saba Oromootis haaluudhaan maqaa haaraya “Soomaali Abboo” jedhanii waaman itti moggaasan. Kitaabni Fura Afaan Oromoo yakka tahee magaalaarraa guuramuunis sababni saa kana. Suniis “Fura Afaan Abboo” tahee akka maxxamfamu ajajan. Mataduree malee qabeentaan kitaabaa ka duraaniitin addaa miti.

Sheek Dr. Mahammad Rashaad, kitaabban baay’eedha barreessan. Baay’een achiin dura waan hin barreeffaminiif isaatu ka duraa taha. kitaabban ijoollee barreessuuf inni ka duraati. Qur’aana guututti gara Afaan  Oromootti hiikuudhaaf inni ka duraati. Kanuma bifa lamaan  barruufi sagaleedhaan biyyaaf qopheessuu isaatinis inni ka duraati. Kana malees kitaabban amantiitiifi kan hawaasaa kanneen adda addaa kitaabsuu isaatiif inni ka duraati. Isaan keessaa hamma tokko: Hadiisa Afurtamman Nawawii, Seeraafi Naamusa Hajjii, Gadaa Islaamaa (Hundeelee Amantii Islaamaa), Tajwiida Qur’aanaa (Akkaataa Qur’aanni Itti qara’amu), Manxiq (Logic), kkf. Kanneen malees, kitaabban Sheekkoo walalooleefi gorsoota adda addaatis barreessaniiti jiran. Ija kanaatiin ragaalee lafa jiran  hundaan Sheek Mahammad Rashaad “Abbaa Barreefama Afaan Oromooti” yoon jedhe itti xiqqaata malee, itti hin guddatu. Sheek Mohammed Rashaad umrii saanii guutuu Oromoo fi Oromummaaf waa buusuuf wareega godhan. Waggoota hamma tokko dura osoo Su’uudii jiranuu faalij irra gayeeti yeroo dheertuuf dhukkubsatan. Booddee gara biyyaa ofiitti galanii magaalaa Dirree Dhawaatti May 25, 2013 du’aan adduyaa tanarraa galan.(Rabbi Rahmata Isaaniif Haa Godhu; Ol’aantii Jannataa Jannatul furdowsiin isaan haa qananeeysu)

Dr. Sheek Mahammad Rashaad hayyuu ummata ofii dagatee osoo humaa hin dhiisiniif  aakiratti deeme miti. Marsaa internet keessatti “Bakka Rashaad” jedhee “website” ofii ijaarratee hojiilee saa kan bara hedduu achirra kaayeeti dhaalmaya dhalootai kaniifi kan hegereetiif gayu dhiise. Kana gochuu isaatiin ammas hayyuu duraa  tahuu saa hundi keenya ragaa dha.  www.rashaad.org dhaqaati dhaala isiniif lakkise daaw’adhaa.

Hikkaa Jechootaa
Waaheellan barruu tana osoo ummatatti hi bahin dura  dubbisan “xumuratti hiikkaa jechootaa yoo itti dabalte gaarii dha” jedhanii waan na gorsaniif kunoo itti dabalameera. Bakka barbaachisutti jechi hiikamu uunkaa barruu tana keessatti ittiin mul’ate qofa osoo hin tahin hundee isaatii fi hortee achirraa dhalatanis ni dhiheessina.

Awaduu: this is in the infinitive form and it means “to tilt towards”. Synonyms afaan Oromoo: conqoluu, golisuu
Ciqqaawuu: it is a verb in the infinitive form. It means cutting into small chunks (originally used for trees ad tree branches) but now extended to other similar actions.  Like the scrumble land.
Dhoortoo: has two meaings: one is “a begger”singular, or “beggers” plural both in  the  noun form , the other is “begging” a gerund. Dhoortoon hulaarra ejjitii maaliin kennaaf? A begger(s) is by the door what should I give him/her/them?   Dhoortoodhaan jiraata. He lives by begging.
Dibeeta: it means INK . It is a solution made by mixing water, soot, natural gum and other things.
Hornagame: In the article the word appears in this form. It is a passive verb from the derivative /hornagam-/ meaning “to be limited” and “Hornagame” would indicate a passive verb of the 3rd persone singular of masculine gender the past tense.  Its root verb is /hornag-/ , a active verb whose English equivalent is “(to) limit”. Here (to limit) is included with “(to)” in bracket  only because it has a meaning close to the infiitve form of the English verb. Otherwise, /hornag-/ is a verb root and not in its infinitive form which as /hornaguu/ which exactly has the meaning “to limit”. There is also the Noun form (“Hornaga) meaning “Limit”.  The statement “sadarkaa afaan dubbiititti  hornagame.” Means “It was limited (forced to remain) to the level of a spoken language only; not allowed to develop to a written language.
Shakaruu: it is a verb in the infinitive form; it is related to hyperactivity or elated behavior which is usually goal directed to get some thing, or attain a certain goal, or do or perform a certain activity.
Suursaga: this is a word coined by blending two words (suuraa & Sagalee) to bear the meaning just like “VIDEO”. Blending is done based on the method the Oromo people used in the past:  ex. Abbuuddoo (“the thumb”) from Abbaa and guddoo; qoollajjii from (qoola and jiidhaa) meanig (“freshly removed animal skin after killing”) , and many more: ogbarruu, seerlugaa, xiinsaga, kkf

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  1. The Oromian bateleur

    Aug 3, 13 at 7:59 pm

    Dr. Abdulsemed Mohamed

    Thank you very much for throwing a light onto the darkness which has suffocated the Oromo languague with it’s pioners pictures.
    I beg you if you can publish it as the books.

  2. Biruk

    Oct 21, 13 at 10:54 am

    these is the method of expanded the islam religious so, it was not the out come of research or study I don’t expect like these how ever oromo is not the way for any arab