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Oromia-Ethiopia: The Mystery of the Black Nile

Posted: Muddee/December 24, 2010 · Finfinne Tribune | Gadaa.com | Comments (33)

Editor’s Note: Maps have been added herein for illustration purposes.

By Tuji Jidda*

A lot has been said about the Abay River and the Blue Nile: patriotic poems have been composed, and beautiful songs sung in their honor; accords signed; major wars fought; and boundaries demarcated. After the recent inaugurations of the highly political Tekeze Dam in Tigray and the Tana-Beles project in Amhara region, the issue of Nile politics has resurfaced once again. Meles Zenawi is touting a renewed possibility of war and is accusing Egypt of backing anti-government rebels in Ethiopia. There is no reasonable ground for Zenawi’s allegations, and his swagger is based on inaccurate facts. This article tries to challenge the correctness of previous opinions of Abyssinian rulers regarding the Nile River.

Westerners do not understand the difference between Abyssinian and non-Abyssinian Ethiopia. It was only fairly recently that it was made known that 86% of the Nile’s water originated in the Ethiopian highlands. As the saying goes, ‘Ferenj na lij yenegerutin yamnal – roughly translated, ‘The white man and the child believe all they are told.’ Abyssinians still do not admit the reality about the origin of the Nile water. They also fail to mention that 50% of the White Nile arises from Ethiopia’s Black Nile, and that 100% of the Juba, Somalia’s big river, comes from Ethiopia.

It is striking, to say the least, many people neglect to properly acknowledge Ethiopian rivers apart from the Abay River and the White Nile. As a result, there is little known information regarding how the utilization of the many key Ethiopian rivers could address the chronic food security issues in Ethiopia.

Ethiopia has many big rivers, eleven lakes, nine saline lakes, four crater lakes and over twelve major swamps. Almost all of the rivers flow from highlands of Ethiopia to the lowland neighboring countries. The true equation for the analysis and understanding of these rivers can be depicted easily by describing the courses of the main rivers one by one. The mapping and presentation of these river basins are crude and subject to major errors.

River Basins in Oromia/Ethiopia (Map Source:
Ministry of Water Resources – Ethiopia). Tekeze, Abbay Mormor and Baro-Akobo Openu make up the Nile River Basin in Ethiopia. The Tekeze River meets the Great Nile River in the Sudan; the Mormor River makes up the “Blue” Nile drainage system in Ethiopia; and the Openu River system contributes to the White Nile River by joining it in South Sudan.

Eighteen Ethiopian rivers flow to the Sudan and cross the border at six different places: three of them being big perennial rivers from southern Ethiopia while the other three are seasonal rivers of the north. Also, four rivers from the Arsi-Bale highlands flow toward Somalia in different directions; three of them merging at the Ethio-Somali border to form the Juba River. The Omo River flows from the southwest highlands of Jimma to Kenya and forms Lake Turkana, the biggest desert lake in the world. The Awash River ends up in Lake Abbe at the Ethio-Djibouti border.

Unlike what is traditional claimed, major Ethiopian rivers do not originate from the arid Semien highlands of Abyssinia or from the desert lowlands of Afar or Ogaden. Instead, Ethiopia’s primary water sources are formed from the streams and lakes of the country’s rainforest regions. Rivers that arise from the northern arid highlands of Amhara and Tigray regions do flow westwards in the direction of Sudan. Those rivers that arise from the west side of the Rift Valley in Arsi, Bale, Chercher and Gara-Mulata mountains flow towards Somalia. Those originating from Tulama (Shoa) and from the Rift Valley area flow towards Djibouti, whereas numerous others originating from the tropical rainforest highlands of southwestern Ethiopia flow in three directions: to the Blue Nile, to the Black Nile and to the Omo River.

If we look closely at Ethiopia’s internal drainage systems, we can easily deduce a number of fundamental political realities. Before the creation of Ethiopia in the late 19th century, Abyssinians and some explorers considered Abay to be both the source of, and a major contributor to, the Nile River. This notion persisted even after the formation of contemporary Ethiopia. The problem remains that Abyssinians present Abay as equivalent to the Blue Nile and, by implication, mistakenly consider all Ethiopian rivers flowing into the Nile as tributaries of Abay. This leads them to the wrong assumption that the Blue Nile is nothing without Abay when, in fact, the opposite is true.

The rhetoric of Abyssinian rulers has always been a false representation of the county as a whole, and its rivers in particular, with the aim of promoting the skewed political dichotomy between Abyssinia and the rest of Ethiopia. It is to be remembered that Abyssinians have managed to present terrorist-like shifta rulers Tewodros, Yohannes and Menelik as noble leaders in Ethiopian history.

Abay, a tributary of the Blue Nile, originates from Lake Tana. Lakes are reservoirs, and they discharge an amount of the river proportional to intakes coming from inflowing streams, rivers and precipitations. As such, Abay cannot have greater contribution than the White Nile, which arises from the tropical rainforest area of Lake Victoria.

To understand the dynamics of the Nile River, one needs to raise the following question: if Ethiopia accounts for 86% of the Nile River, and the Abay River contributes only 6% of the river water, where does the remaining 80% come from, and why are other Ethiopian rivers only mentioned as small-scale contributors to Abay? The answer? Most of the contributing rivers come from Oromia and other subjugated Southern regions of Ethiopia.

The Blue Nile or Mormor River
A lot has been said about the Blue Nile from the Abyssinian perspective, focusing mainly on the fact that Abay originates from Lake Tana. However, non-Abyssinian Ethiopian perspectives of the river are different and can be summarized as follows. The Blue Nile drains about sixteen rivers before crossing the border into the Sudan. It is the combination of these rivers that, eventually, forms the Blue Nile, or the Mormor River. Though the river is referred to as blue, it is actually black in color due to the heavy black silt it carries. “Blue” comes from local Sudanese language that uses blue and black interchangeably. As described below, Oromian rivers contribute the biggest share of the Blue Nile water, and the Blue Nile brings the lion’s share of the Nile River. Below are the sixteen rivers that form the Blue Nile with their approximate courses and estimated water contributions.

Figure: The “Blue” Nile River Basin (The Mormor River Basin) (Modified to show Oromian rivers from the original Source)

Abay originates from the historical Lake Tana. The lake receives three seasonal-type smaller streams: Megech, Ribb and Gumara – from the adjacent Gondar area, and discharges one small and one medium-sized river, called the Little Abay River and the Abay River, respectively. The Little Abay empties into springs of Sakala in Gojjam, and the proper Abay forms the upper course of the Blue Nile River. It contributes about 6% of the Blue Nile water.

Bashilo drains smaller streams and rivers of the Wallo region, and its tributaries include the Tirgiya, Checheho and the Walano rivers. The confluence of the two rivers, Abay and Bashilo, at the gorge some 30km down from Lake Tana forms the upper course of the Blue Nile. Conventionally, the true source of a river is considered to be whichever tributary is farthest from the mouth. Because it is unclear if the longest river is Abay or Bashilo, it is disputed which river is the true source of the Blue Nile. Like Abay, Bashilo flows in deep canyons and contributes about 4% of the Nile.

Beto is a small river that drains rivers from the Wallo-Tullama area, like the Kalaka River. It joins the Blue Nile some 40km down the Abay-Bashilo confluence and contributes about 3% of the Nile.

Jamaa drains the Wanchet and Salale areas and passes close to Fiche town to merge with the Blue Nile. There is an old Portuguese bridge on this river. Jamaa contributes 5% of the Nile.

Muger is a river that drains streams from Ambo area and receives Labu River as a tributary. It passes alongside the Muger cement factory and contributes 3% of the Nile.

Gudar drains Gudar area rivers like Dabissa and Taranta, and contributes 3.5% of the Nile.

Fincha’a is small tributary that originates from Fincha’a Lake. It passes beside the Fincha’a Sugar Factory and contributes 1% of the Nile.

Dhedhessa is a great river that originates from the tropical rainforest mountains of Gomma and Guma area, where Gabba and Gojeb rivers come from, and drains big rivers of the Jimma, Illubabor and Wallagga areas. Its tributaries include Doggaja, Malka-hidda, Enareya, Dabana, Alet, Wama, and the Angar rivers; it merges with the Blue Nile downstream of the river. Tributaries of the Anger include the Wajja, Alata, and Ukke rivers. The size of the river Dhedhessa at its mouth is comparable to that of the Baro River, and it constitutes about 13% of the Nile. The historical Oromo name of the river that flows from Wallagga areas to the Sudan is called Mormor, and it is this river that actually forms the core of the Blue Nile.

Dabus, also called the Yabus River, originates from the West Wallagga area and drains rivers and swamps from the western part of the Benishangul-Gumuz region to merge with the Blue Nile just before it crosses the border to the Sudan. This river contributes about 6% of the Nile’s water.

Temcha, Birr and Fattom are rivers originating from the southern part of Gojjam and they merge, separately, one after the other, with the Blue Nile in the middle of its course, and they each contribute 1% of the Nile, together 3%.

Dura originates from the Wambara area and contributes about 1% of the Nile.

Beles is a medium-sized river that originates in Dangur woreda in the Dangur range of mountains in the Metekel and Wembera area to merge with the Blue Nile just at the border of the Sudan. It contributes about 3% of the Nile.

Dinder drains streams and mainly rainfall floods west of Lake Tana in the Semien Gonder zone, in Alefa woreda. It has a short course within Ethiopia. It contributes about 2.5% of the Blue Nile after the river passes Rosiers and Sennar dams around 130kms from Ethio-Sudan border. It is a seasonal river that dries up during dry seasons.

Rahad, like the river Dinder, is a seasonal river that drains streams and mainly rainy season arid highlands floods of western Gondar. Rahad is its Sudanese name and the river has no properly recognized name in Ethiopia. Like Dinder, the river does not form part of the proper Blue Nile as it does not meet the river within Ethiopian border, but joins the Blue Nile before the confluence of the White and the Blue Niles at Khartoum. The river passes Rosiers and Sennar dams 150kms from Ethio-Sudan border and contributes about 2% to the Nile. Like Dinder, it dries up at lower course during dry seasons.

The interesting point here is that it is the amalgamations of all the sixteen rivers that form the proper Blue Nile that contribute 52% of the Nile. Also, it is with the addition of the Black Nile (Barya or Baro River) that Ethiopian rivers’ share of the Nile becomes 86%. This means that, despite the little and yet disguised acknowledgment given to Ethiopian rivers by the national authorities, the facts on the ground confirm that Oromian rivers alone contribute about 80% of the Black Nile and 60% of the Blue Nile. In other words, Oromian rivers contribute about 60% of the 86% of the Ethiopian water share of the Nile River. Overall, this accounts for approximately 50% of the Nile River water. Unfortunately, this fact is played down rather than admitted. For example, the creators of the IMAX film “Mystery of the Nile” were remiss in showing the spectacular scenes created by the confluence of the great Blue Nile tributaries.

For the most part, the Blue Nile forms the boundary between Gojjam and Wallagga. As a result, it has different names at different places. Habeshas confusingly call one of the tributaries of the Blue Nile, Abay, and the Blue Nile itself by same name, while some Oromos call it Abbayyaa. The true historical name of the river that includes all the tributaries is Mormor, named during the historical Gadaa Mormor of Ethiopia. The river gets the name Mormor specifically at or after the great confluence of Dhedhessa with upstream rivers.

It should be noted here that, despite the Abyssinian political invention of a 16th century “Galla Migration,” the Oromo are one of the indigenous Cushitic people of Africa who originally settled alongside the Nile River. On the other hand, the Abyssinian false presentation of the Abay River as one and the same with the Blue Nile, and the interchangeable use of the same word for two distinct entities, is analogous with the Abyssinia-Ethiopia political confusion. It is not appropriate to say it, but their claim feels as if the Blue Nile will not exist if, for example, the shallow Lake Tana dries up in 20 to 25 years time period.

Tekeze or Setit River
It is a northern river that originates from Ras Dejen Mountain in Gondar and drains streams from the arid Semien Massif Mountains. The tributaries of Tekeze include Balagas, Wari and Shinfa rivers. The river continues towards the Tigray region, where it is called Tekeze and then Setit when it reaches the Humera area. Two other rivers of Begemdir, the Angereb and Atbara rivers, merge with Tekeze inside the Sudan to form the river Atbara. Then, this river passes through Kassala, the Sudan, and flows in a northwest direction to merge, only during flood season, with the great Nile river on its way downstream of Khartoum, Sudan.

Tekeze River is totally outside the proper Blue Nile drainage system. Compared to the major Ethiopian rivers, such as Dhedhessa, Gabba and Gibe, Tekeze is a small river, but, politically, as strong as the TPLF, with the capacity to drag Ethiopia into a major war. Though it is a perennial river, the amount of water discharged by the river fluctuates significantly during short rainy and long dry seasons. During short flood time, the river discharges a considerable amount of water like the Dachatu River of Dire-Dawa. During the long dry season, however, it ends up in the Sudanese desert before reaching the Egyptian Nile. On average, it contributes about 3% to the Nile. It is on this river that the highly political and most expensive Tekeze Dam had been constructed. However, the small amount of the yearly flow of this water, high seepage rate and other reasons put the effective formation of the large lake to serve the dam’s purpose in doubt.

Black Nile or Barya or Shankila or Baro River
This river is one of the biggest rivers that contribute a large quantity of water to the Nile. The river originates from the tropical rainforest mountain regions of Ethiopia, and drains numerous streams and many rivers of the Illubabor, Wallagga, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambella and South Sudan regions. Little is mentioned or known about the drainage areas of this great river, as Robert O. Collins admitted in his book entitled “The Nile.” The main contributories are Gabba, Sor and Birbir. The confluence of these rivers, a few miles away from the town of Gore, forms the Black Nile, a name which is derived from the black silt in the river. Geographically, the Black Nile flows hundreds of kilometers apart from the Blue Nile. After Gore, it flows to the direction of Gambella. Downstream, it receives another great river called the Pibor River as a tributary, which is itself formed by the confluence of the Gilo, Jikawo, Akoba and Veveno rivers from Gambella and South Sudan areas. Finally, it merges with a proportional amount of the Equatorial River coming from the Sudd region in the upper part of South Sudan to jointly form the White Nile.

Gabba is a considerably great river – the same size as the Gibe River. It originates from the dense tropical, nine-month rainforest highlands of Sigmo woreda of the Jimma zone bordering Illubabor – more specifically, at the center of the Mocha-Sigmo-Gabba forest area. Eighty percent of these areas are covered by forests and swamps.

Sor is a big river, with a size comparable to that of Gabba. It originates from Sayo woreda in the West Wallagga zone and passes 5km below the town of Mattu, forming the spectacular Sor Falls 18km from Mattu in a place called Bacho, then making a great confluence with the Gabba River a few kilometers away from Gore.

Birbir originates from the Benishangul-Gumuz area, drains most rivers of Wallagga and Illubabor, and then meets with the Gabba and Sor rivers before reaching Gambella to form Openu River, or the Black Nile. The size of the river is bigger than northern rivers. Its course defines part of the boundary between the West Wellega and Illubabor Zones of the Oromia Region.

Pibor is formed by various streams that come together at Pibor post. The Pibor, Baro, Gilo, and Akobo rivers all drain the Ethiopian highlands. The Baro River is by far the largest, contributing 83% of the total water flowing into the Sobat River.

The Black Nile has different native names at different points along its course. The Oromos call it Nanno River, whereas the Anuak call it Openu River. The Abyssinians, however, call it by the derogatory names of Barya, Shankila or Baro River. The Black Nile contributes about 14% of the Nile after it loses a certain amount of its water and its silts in the hot swampy Gambella woreda of the Machar Marshes. The great crimes committed against the Black Nile are three fold: firstly, the river and its tributaries are not well acknowledged by the Abyssinian rulers, almost as if they were non-Ethiopian rivers; secondly, it has been given derogatory terms; and thirdly, despite its proportional amount of water contribution to the White Nile, it is considered, like the Blue Nile tributaries, as simply a tributary of the White Nile.

The White Nile has numerous streams and rivers in Brundi, Ruwanda Congo, Zaire, Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya. It contributes water to the great Lakes of Victoria, Kivu, Edwards, Albert and Kyoga and then flows to a vast swampy region, where it loses much of the water to evaporation. The purified water coming out of the Sudd forms the upper While Nile that contributes fourteen percent of the Nile. Had it not been for the lakes, reservoirs and huge evaporation loss in the vast Sudd swamps, the contribution of the rivers from this region to the While Nile would have been more than double in quantity.

– Ethiopia is a water-rich country, but lacks a clear and accurate usage policy. Its inaccurate policy emanates from deep-rooted internal political subjugation and obfuscation of the country, including its rivers. Especially neglected are Oromian rivers that contribute the lion’s share of most rivers in Ethiopia: the Blue Nile, Black Nile, Omo, Hawas and Juba. Yet, the main policy issue that has preoccupied successive Ethiopian regimes is whether to give priority to the development of relatively small desert Abyssinian highlands’ rivers at a high cost with low expected productivity, or to the development of big forest non-Abyssinian highlands’ rivers of the South at a much higher rate of return. To survive as a self-sustaining country, Ethiopian leaders need to admit the facts on the ground, tell the truth and develop all rivers according to their economic importance. They need to set the clear objective of meeting food security issues and addressing population growth challenges, rather than boasting about only Abyssinian rivers to maintain the political interests of one ethnic group. Therefore, pushing the country into a potentially devastating war to safeguard Abyssinian rivers in the name of Ethiopia is reminiscent of the unnecessary TPLF-EPLF war over the Badme desert. This unacceptable policy should be denounced and objected by all Ethiopians.

– Studies do show that food security projects can be more successful in the Black Nile, Mormor, Juba, Omo, Awash and Shebele basins than they can in the Dinder, Rahad and Tekeze basins. Therefore, the Ethiopian government should stop beating the war drum, come out of its regionalist mentality of the Abyssinian vs. non-Abyssinian Ethiopia dichotomy. The government should direct proper attention to ascertaining equitable sharing and development of these rivers through policy cooperation.

Figure: Dhedhesa River as one of the major sources of “Blue” Nile River

– The false political description of the Abay River as the major contributor of the Blue Nile needs to be corrected. Also, if the source of the river is determined by whichever tributary of the Blue Nile is farthest from the mouth, and not by the number of monasteries, the reality needs to be verified and the credit for the true source of the Blue Nile should go to the Bashilo River instead of Lake Tana.

– As a true source of the three big rivers of Ethiopia (Dhedhessa, Gabba and Gojab), the 80% forest and swampy Sigmo woreda deserves to be named the true “source of Ethiopian rivers” and “The Water Tower of East Africa,” and designated as a destination of tourists and scientific researchers.

– The fact that all the big rivers of Wallagga, Illubabor, Western Jimma, Benishangul and Gambella regions do contribute the lion’s share of the Nile River should be acknowledged and made known to students and people of those regions.

– It is imperative to call our rivers by their true names. First, confusing the names of the tributaries of Blue Nile with the proper Blue Nile should be corrected. Secondly, instead of borrowing the Sudanese word and calling a black river “blue,” it is better to use the original Ethiopian name of “Mormor River” for the Blue Nile.

– Calling the Black Nile names like Barya, Shankila or Baro River should be stopped without any precondition and be renamed officially by its true lower stream name, Openu. It should be noted as a proper Ethiopian river, but not as negligible tributary of the equatorial White Nile.

– The fact that the Tekeze River travels in arid mountains of the North makes the river very important for that region. It would have been wise to spend the country’s scarce resources on the construction of three or four dams elsewhere rather than spending all that money in an ineffective dam that contributes little in alleviating the country’s chronic food insecurity.

Finally, the now likely creation of an independent, Christian, South Sudan would have many similarities with the creation the then State of Christian Island Abyssinia that latter transformed into Ethiopia. In the long run, the ramifications of this political action will have immense impact on the politics of the Horn, and will intensify an already complex quarrel over the dwindling water resources of the Nile. Sudan may need to exercise caution not to share the catastrophic fate of Somalia, especially if Al-Bashir adopts the controversial Islamic law as the main source of legislation.

Some books and few learned individuals seldom mention Abyssinian rulers’ historical concern over the utilization of Nile tributaries, and the Egyptians counter involvement in supporting opposition and adversaries to destabilize Ethiopia. For example, during the Badme war, better known as TPLF-EPLF war, Egypt was accused of supporting Eritrea. TPLF supporters considered retaliating against Egypt by either diverting or poisoning the water, or by bombing the Aswan Dam that would cause an Egyptian tsunami. It is, however, strongly advisable to refrain from considering such a terrorizing alternative and focus on real policy cooperation.

* The writer, Tuji Jidda, can be reached at tujijidda@gmail.com

Editor’s Note: The historical Kumsa Moroda Bridge, built in the 18th century and damaged by the British Airforce at a battle against fascist Italy during the Second World War, lies over the Dhedhessa (also spelt Didessa) River. The Abyssinian-controlled state media outlets do not mention about this potential tourist destination.


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  1. Marartu

    Dec 24, 10 at 9:57 pm

    What a presentation. 75% of the information is new for me. It looks high level research supported by imprical evidences. It require the legal of Nile politics to be complete. What I learn from this article and wiikileaks is that we have little idea about our country. Full of sabotage!!

  2. Qana'a

    Dec 25, 10 at 12:02 am

    What an insight!, what a fact! The still secret, not declassified, treaties that defined Ethiopian boundaries are based on the then colonial interests, epecially relating to the Rivers. Article 1 of the treaty reads as ‘The frontier between the Sudan and Ethiopia agreed on betwen the two governments shall be: the line….and traced from KhorUm Hagar to Gallabat, to the Blue Nile, Baro, Pibor and Akobo Rivers to Melile……..’. From the very beginning the concern is not development of Oromian Rivers but to safeguard the interests of clonizers, including Abyssinian colonizer.

  3. Wako 'n wako

    Dec 25, 10 at 12:09 am

    Shockingly powerful, and scarry (for some) facts. Please post this article on Ethiopian websites and some international outlets.

    Thank you for enlightening us with this persuasive and fascinating article. Plz write more…..

  4. Barii

    Dec 25, 10 at 12:46 am

    Obbo Tuji Jidda,

    Thanks a million for writing the splendid article and educating us. It is one of the ground-breaking and informative articles I have ever read about the myths of the Ethiopian Empire. The politics of the Ethiopian Empire is built more on myths than reality. Successive Ethiopian Empire rulers have purposely miss-educated us in all fronts. Most of the things they taught us about history and people of the Empire are fabricated myths without a solid foundation.

    We desperately need “myth busters” like you who are equipped with facts and realities on the ground. Please post the article as wide as possible. It is high time to chop-down the miss-education myths that form the core of the Ethiopian Empire politics of oppression and suppression. The TPLF/EPRDF regime is just perpetuating the myths in different forms.

    Lastly, this article proves unequivocally that Meles’ recent rhetoric about the Nile River is more of self-serving political agenda than an argument about equitable/fair use of the Nile River. Meles leases the fertile lands of the Empire to foreign companies and countries for up to 99 years. If it works out for him, he will not blink his eyes to lease all the tributaries of the Nile or the Black Nile to the highest bidder, be that Egypt, Sudan or whichever country for up to 99 years or longer. Also add TPLF regime’s lease of the fertile lands for up to 99 years to foreigners, which it claims as part of the transformational economic development, to new age myth. Gladly, the regime can only miss-educate very few in this information age.

    Myths are destroying the Ethiopian empire. Ethiopia won’t survive by perpetuating myths. It is high time reality takes the place of myths. But facing reality calls for courage; courage rulers of the Ethiopian Empire desperately lack. They believe in the myths they fabricate than the reality standing in their faces.

  5. Argii Amani

    Dec 25, 10 at 5:29 am

    nice and very informative article! Galatoomi, itti fufi; Rabbi/Waaqa Oromoo si haa eebbisu!!

  6. Mestewat

    Dec 25, 10 at 7:41 am

    Excellent presentation! Bu please avoid like a plague the naive self centered assumption, wild generalization and baseless stereotyping statement, “Ferenj na lij yenegerutin yamnal” approach as if all the so called ferenjis are one and the same and as if they are incapable of investigating facts and reach close to objective conclusions, say, compared to non ferenjis. By the same logic, do you really mean then that all blacks are basing their judgments and conclusions on absolute facts? Hmm… Why do you poison your own good article by trying to degrade your own potential audiences and supporters instead of appealing and convincing with facts?

    Please spice your ideas with some sort of elementary social intelligence otherwise you are only inviting unreasonable opposition rather than reasonable support. Otherwise many thanks for your Nile information.

  7. Leqaa

    Dec 25, 10 at 8:16 am

    Very good analysis! As wako said try to send it to these so-called ‘Ethiopian websites’ like ethiomedia and addisvoice since they very much admire ONN (Oromo Negative News), so they won’t take it since it does not preach about the lose oromo people organizations.

  8. Waqjiraa Gudataa

    Dec 25, 10 at 8:28 am

    Dear to one of our heroes a highly respected Obbo TUJI,
    Thanks ! so much for such historical article so far I have come across in challenging not only the Myth of Ethiopian empire but also clearing the myth the Abyssinians tried to sabotage on our natural resources too. I found it the most interesting facts about our own Identity and our dominant stakes in Nile politics where Oromians and Egyptians can build a Regional Strategical Alliance based on common interest and respect as we have already arrived on a common of that consens. It is Educational Article for our fundamental cause and a Diplomacy supportive material for our Policy Makers Group and Vs Nile politics. Already in Cairo, this article became the most popular Diplomatic Forum as one of my Egyptian friend Dr. Nasib Nur Ahmed put it.
    Thanks indeed, in our modern History the kind of unacceptable always Myth Imiyee Ethiopia must be challenged and denounced by our Inttelectual heroes like the author of this article whom his nation and peace loving nations proud of him. Oromo Talented are only Oromia. This is a pave to Pan- Oromummaa for Liberty and Stability.
    Gadaa.com, Opride.com and Oromia Times, please can we put this aricle in a Mini-documentary film in any way where I can devoted to help any thing I can contribute?!
    Last not least, I Wish to my nation a happy Christmas and happy New Year of 2011.
    Galatooma!, from Kinshasa

  9. Dawaa Oromoo

    Dec 25, 10 at 8:52 am

    Mr. Tuji,
    I have no words, for the apriciation of your work!! please try to post this article on other websites as much as possible….
    Keep it up!!

  10. qero

    Dec 25, 10 at 9:15 am

    Hi Tuji jidda,

    Thank you so much for bringing this nice article into being, the next step is the work of the politician to work around this issue and gain the support for their people(specifically for the Oromo people and the people living in Oromia).

    On your lessons part: 1.you mentioned the policy but who puts forward those policies and the policies exiting so far are benefits only the ruling part, what is the use of having policy while it benefits some ruling part only? what is the use of mentioning having resources while it does not benefit the people around it? In all Ethiopia what is happening is living at the expense the poor or living at the expense of the poor resources without sharing a slight of it.

    2. Why did you give the name Openu rather than the name Nanno to Black Nile?

    3. Ethiopia only christian why did you mention as it is christian Island?

    thank you so much,


    You raised nice points, today the oromo people being deprived of living on his resources due to land grab, and talking about this issue, I don’t know who it benefits more.

    Also, How this helps us in gaining international support for oromo who is under subjugation? I call all to discuss on this .



  11. Dhugaa

    Dec 25, 10 at 9:22 am

    Wow. akkuma Oromon jedhuu “Dhugaan turtti malee hinumaa batti” Kunoo hara’a batee. As most people said, this article contains high level of reserch, and I learned a lot. Thanks to you!

    Others, let us spread it to social networking site and other websites.

    thanks agian.

  12. Berki Teshome

    Dec 25, 10 at 11:10 am

    Mr. Tuji,
    Thank you veryt much. I think this is a deep analysis which can educate everyone.

  13. Tokkee

    Dec 25, 10 at 11:41 am

    Wonderful article. Great work !!

  14. jawar dhifama

    Dec 25, 10 at 12:06 pm

    shem for people who say a lot to jawar you have to ask apologize for our respected brother of future. specialy for the one who call themself – tasisa, mosisa, mohaa,futasa, enesa……

  15. Roobaa Garbii

    Dec 25, 10 at 4:11 pm

    Excellent Analysis about lion’s share of Oromian Rivers in the blue nile. This facts should be acknowldged by Abyssinian rulers and international community!!! Dear Tiji, please post it on as many websites as possible!!!! Thank you for your great contributions!!

  16. Southean sadat

    Dec 26, 10 at 2:51 am

    Hi Tuji wonderful.

  17. Nubeya osman

    Dec 26, 10 at 3:10 am

    I learned a lot.Thanks to you very very much Mr. Tuji,for you Gret work!!

  18. Rooney is Oromo

    Dec 26, 10 at 7:43 am

    Wow the funny thing about oromia websites is that since they are felling inferiority complex all the time they need to say everything is thiers own. One group of oromo says Menelik, Hailesilase is oromo and onother say them colonizer. One group say amhara is abysiniazed oromo and another said amhara is our enemy. all such kind of stuffs are the result of inferioruty. And a newcommer said the source of nile is oromia. Well, congra for ur finding. I think next time we will hear that Albert Anestine, Issack newton has also oromo blood and the source of Indian Ocean is sweet Oromia. heheheheheheheheheh

  19. Jelousy?

    Dec 26, 10 at 8:05 am

    you just showed your own inferiority complex and your jelousy against Oromo! Your myth is being destroyed by such Oromo intlectuals who made you cry like this! You will hear and read more facts in the future, just open your mind!!

  20. Moohaa

    Dec 26, 10 at 4:56 pm

    great work! Jabaadhu!! We do see that your article just shaked the mythical base of the Abyssinians, specially that of the Weyane, who still dream to use Oromo force for its service of the Westerners against the Arabs! We will see, how our policy makers will use the facts you put in paper! Galatoomi for your effort!

  21. Reclaim Stolen Identity

    Dec 26, 10 at 5:27 pm


    Your revelation should be recorded as one of the major steps in the Oromo struggle against the Abyssinian System of Domination. It is as much important as Gen. Tadesse Biru’s revelation, in which he learnt the hidden policy of the Abyssinian state to culturally and linguistically exterminate Oromos.

    Now, today, you revealed the secret identity given to Abay in order to deny Oromia its rightful place in the record books.

    Oromo singers, artists – hear the call. Pick up your pens, microphones and instruments – sing/write about our newly found identity. Dhedhessa is the source of Nile.

  22. garomsaa

    Dec 26, 10 at 7:54 pm

    wanni akkasi baay’ee nama gamachisaa, garaa fulduratis akka itti fufu abadini egana, seenaa oromo dhokatee hanga tokko ifati baha jiriti karaa adda addatni, kanaafu dhabotni oromo hundi tokkumani socha’u qabu jennaa. seenaa oromo adunyaa irraati bekisisufi, ummata rakkina, gadado jala basu, tokko ta’u qabana jedha
    ulafadha, galatoma jennaa
    website gadaa galatomaa
    akkasumati itti fufa

  23. Truth

    Dec 27, 10 at 10:28 am

    For 100 years we talked about myth and wrong facts. Let’s forget the past and sing new song for true rivers of Ethiopia- Mormor River.

  24. Falmataa

    Dec 27, 10 at 11:17 am

    Exceptionally brilliant, Tuji. Thank you indeed for this authentic and first hand information. As I assume that you might be an environmental scientist or an individual specializing in geography or water engineering, I urge you to take up a teaching or research post at a univerity as well as write a book on this topic.

    Congratulations again! Go on, brave son of the Oromo Nation.

  25. Falmataa

    Dec 27, 10 at 11:32 am

    Dear Jawar,

    Your article for which you have been misunderstood and slundered by many has now enlightened us about the significance of Oromia rivers. It is my contention that this remarkable article by Tuji has been inspired by your paper.

    Sorry for the rough experience you have suffered.

    Therefore, please do not despair but go on publishing.

  26. Dagne

    Dec 27, 10 at 4:25 pm

    Weather we like it or not, this is the best finding of the year.
    Dear Tuji- congradulation for contributing the most educative ARTICLE OF THE YEAR.

  27. Liban

    Dec 28, 10 at 8:00 am

    I have never seen a single writer who addresses this type of problem in Ethiopia.

  28. Menelik

    Dec 28, 10 at 4:31 pm

    iI would have preferred if these kinds of information were kept secret. But if it is out to the world to read, clearly the worry goes to belligerent Egypt, not Ethiopia. I f the statics presented here by the writer is credible, it is excellent revealation and utilizing our share of the nile river is even much easier than i thought previously. As a number of Ethiopian scholars pointed out in the past, our country can do better if she builds dams in her much unknown tributaries instead of Abay which is under the constant watchful eyes of Egypt and the rest of the world.

  29. Raya M

    Dec 30, 10 at 10:25 am

    This article really explains the core issue, and it is very well organized and full of evidences. I personally enjoyed the fact and learnt a lot from it.
    Spetial thanks to dear Tuji Jidda. You did a lot better than I expected what I would possiblly learn about the mistery of true NILE.

  30. Jalatama

    Dec 30, 10 at 3:55 pm

    I like those words and expresions- Mormor, Noble Shifta, monastry, Sudd, Abyssinia, non-abyssinia Ethiopia, Northern people nation & Nationalities Region vs. SPNNR, Cushitic Ethiopia, Black Nile, Blue Nile, White Nile, war drum, Beautiful article. Introduced new idea combining with refreshing ubsurd history.

  31. Kumsa

    Jan 1, 11 at 8:26 am

    Four factors determine Ethiopian politics: Religion, ethnicity, colonization and River. This article brought to forefront the atrocities committed to orphan Oromian Rivers. It is a well researched breakthrough paper.

  32. Melkegnaw

    Jan 7, 11 at 8:44 am

    It is true Abyssinians love and still prefer calling Black Nile by deregatory name shanqo or Baro. I remember that after the official inaguration of the great Baro bridge by Mengistu Haile-Mariam, people were saying Barya inagurrated Barya bridge.

  33. A sad oromo

    Jan 11, 11 at 7:39 am

    I looked at this article hoping to gain some understanding of East African Rivers (there are so few writings that are objective). While I did get an interesting perspective on how to look at the rivers, I just can’t believe the amount of bashing and all the talk about Abyssinian and non-Abyssinian Ethiopia, Oromo, Tigray….WHO CARES! In this day and age where one has to be smart and intelligent about coexisting, we are cocooned in to our little mind sets, festering about how everyone in the world is out to get us, when in reality nobody cares! Obbo Tuji, this would have been an intellectual article that could have gotten other non-Oromos and “ferenjis” to think, but now it will be dismissed as some “African tribal/ethnic” ranting and no one will even take a second look. Sad indeed.