“Manifesto” – Dhuma Danqama Ilaalchaa ABO Keessaa?
Waa’ee qabsoo Oromo yeroo kaafnu hanga tokkoo gara duubaati deebinee kan laalluu muuxannoon kaleessaa hardhaaf dhimma baasinnaa jenneetu. Mootummaan Hayila Sillaasee kan kufe warraaqsa aarii ummataan dhoo’eeni. Dargiin mooticha bakka bu’uuf humnoota adda addaa naannaa sagantaa gadjalaa (minimum) tokkooti qindeeffate. Akkasiti humnoota sabhedduu akeeka sooshaaliismiin gaggeeffamna jedhan waliti fiduu danda’e. Garba gamaas qooda fudhachuuf hedduutu it didiche. Akka irbuu seenanitt karaa Baalee galuu isaan oolche. Kan walitti dufan qabsoon gitaa rakkina sabaawummaa empayeritii keessa jiru furuu dandaha jedhanii dhaadatan. Sabboonotis hin geessineen male luuxanii dhimma itt bahuu yaalanii turan.
Qabsaawoti Oromoo dargaggoo kolonummaa Oromiyaati amanaaniif walabummaa seetiif qabsaawuu kutatan hedduu galmeeffatan. Sanaanis gara caaluu biyya keessaa dargaggoo hedduu hawwatan. Haa ta’u malee hidhata Oromoo alaa dhufaniin tokkoo tokkoo Dargiiti galuuf harca’uun hin hafne. Korri ABO bu’uursuuf taa’e uumaa qabsoo Dargiin gaggeeffamaa jiru fi haala empayeritii keessaa xiinxaluun, Dargii jalati kan waliti qabaman dhaabota Nafxanyaa ta’uu saanii fi Oromooti waliin hiriiraa jiranis Goobanoota haaraa ta’uu beeksise. Kanaaf gaaffii Oromoo akka deebisuu hin dandeenye akeekkachiise. Sana irrati hundaawuun maqaa Adda Bilisummaa Oromootti (ABO) moggaafatee sagantaa malbulchaa hordofu labse.
Oromoon Dargii waliin Tokkumaa Dhaaboota Markisist Leeninists (IMLDH/Imaaledih) ijaaran ABO akka dhaaba sabboonota dhiphoo taheti balaaleffatanii itt duuluu eegalan. Yerosiif haa se’an malee, duuba gaabbuu hin oolle. “Hiriyaa malee dhaqxee gaggeessaa malee galti” jedhu abbooliin. Akeeki jallewwaan saanii Habashotaa fi eenyummaan saanii waliti toluu dadhabe. Murnichaaf jijjiirama fakkeessaa xixiqoo gochuu malee empayerichi akka jirutii tuqamuu hin qabu. Oromoon isatt galan ammayyuu yaadaanmal qabsoo gitaaf amanamoo akka ta’anii fi fiixaan baasuu barbaaduu saanii beeka. Kanaaf hariiroon qaban qabbanaawuu eegale.
Dhuma irrati erga of gad jabeessee booda murni nafxanya jallewwan isa hin fakkaane jeequuti ka’e. Akkuma abboolii saa Oromoof hooggansa kennuu dandahu kan jedhaman hunda gara jabinaan dhabamsise. Dhaaboti Habashaa hundi utuu isaan hin jibbin jibaniin. Oromoon empayeritii demokratessinee sabooti obbolummaa fi walqixummaan haala keessa jiraatan uumna jedhan akka sobaman hubatan. Kun nama waabarii saaniti baratef waan deddeebi’ee seena saanii keessati himamu. Waabarii sana kan hanqate hin turre. Kanaaf dhibee “Stockholm Syndrome” yk “capture bonding” jedhamuun tuqaman malee kan nagaa hin fakkaatu. Sun gaaga’amoota roorrisaan doorsisaa fi guraaraan surrii dhiqee akka jaallatanii fi sodaatan godhurraa muldhata. Oromoon jaarraa tokkoo oliif boojuu jala jiraate. Dhiibbaan sun ammallee hin dhibu.
ABOn walabummaan ijaarame, bubbulee garuu yaada dubatt hafaan tuttuqamuu hin oolle. Jaallewwan malkaa malkati walbuusuun hubatameera. Sagantaa baafate hojiirra olchuuf hankaaksaatu heddummaate. Rakkinni saganticha irra osoo hin ta’in kanneen galfati itt kenname. Qabsoon kan gaafatu walamantee jallewan gidduu, kutannoo, dudhama, fi of eegganoo dha. Dafqii dhiiga baraara jedhama. Itt dafqan malee bilisummaan salphaatt hin argamu. Filmaatota gidduu dadaddaaquun bu’aa kennuun hafee balaa akka galaanaa dhiiga lolaasuu fiduu danda’a.
Hamma yoonaa gufuu mudatan keessaa hayyooti lafa jala ilaalcha jijjiirrachuu fi itt baha saa osoo hin hedin deggersaf bakka hin taane qubaa kaa’uu dha. Iyya dabarsitonni erga ilaalchi lama ABO keessa jiraachuu akeekkachiisanii turaniiru. Tokko ejjennoo ABO ifaa fi kootama repubilikii Oromiyaa walaba ijaarra jedhu. Ilaalchi biraa yeroo dheeraa keessa yaroon kan misoome fi hidda sagantaa Imaaledihi keessaa kan qabu, “Itiyoophiyaa dimookraatofte mirgi abba tokkee fi murnootaa keessati ulfina argatan” uumuu jedhu. Ilaalchi kun lamaan akkaataa ABOn itt hojjetu irrati dhiibaa qabu turani. Hooggansi walii golgee yaadi addaa jiraachuu haalaa ba’uun hojii dhaabichaa gutummaati laashesse. Giddu kana garuu barruun “Manefesto ABO” jedhu beekaa dhimmisee haa ta’u hatamee, marsaa “web” tokkoo irratt muldhateera. Sana murni ABO tokoo kan kiyya jedheera. Innis “Galii …qabsoo Oromoo” kan jedhu keesaa kan itt haanutu argama: “2.1. Itoophiyaa, fedha Oromoo fi sabaa fi sab-lammootaa biroon ijaaramtee, mirg siyaasaa, dingdee fi hawaasummaa Oromoo sadarkaa hundatti keessatti kabajaamu ijaaruu.”
Oromoon yaada kana ifaan guddifatan biyya keessa sosso’an jiru. ABO keessati kan cuqqalame buqqisuun garuu isa jalqabaati. Amma hundi qola saanii keessaa cabsatanii nokkora ambaaf dhihaachuuf deemu jechuu dha. Nokkorichi dhaaba tokkoo keessati utuu hin ta’in mooraa lama ilaalcha addaa qaban gidduti ta’a. Dhuma irrati kan murteessu ormicha. Tokkoon saanii walabummaa Oromiyaaf, inni biraa tokkumaa Itiyoophiyaaf nama kakaasa jechuu dha. Qabsaawoti humna barsiifataa ugganii yaada taliilaa kanaan gadi bahan galata qabu. Yeroo isaan yaadicha ifa godhan dharraan eegama. Sanaa kaasee qabsoon Oromoo toora laman dhihata jechuu dha. Maqichi yeroo sagantaan malbuchaa dubbicha ilaalu bahu bakka walfakkatuti hafa.
Kan garaagarummaa fiduuf deemu maqicha oso hin ta’in dhimmamaa.Yaadi manefesto jedhame keessa jiru kan murna walii tumsaniis akka ta’e qilleensaa irra dhagahameera. Kan qabsicha amansiisaa godhu murna osoo hin ta’in yaada garaa itt amanan filachuu dha. ABOn dhaaba seenaa dheeraa qabu fi hundaan jaallatamu. Kanaaf murni maqaa kana kudhaammachuu hin feedhne hin jiru. Garuu miira yayyabama saan kan ka’e hundatti hin ta’u. Kanaaf kan mala kaayyoo ABO ganaman irra adda qaban maqaa sana gitu baafachuun akkaa. Qabsaawoti moggaasa adda addaa jala hiriiran maqaan osoo hin ta’in hobbaa galmeesaniin madalamu.
Dhaaboti qabsaawan hundi bakka kan itt dhiiguu, madaawuu, gidiramuu fi du’uuf jiru Oromiyaa keessa ta’uu qabu. Booleen galanii Baaleen homaa miti. Dargaggoo gurmeessuu fi egeree qabsoo amansiisaa gochuun biyya keessati sosso’uu gaafata. Badiin ala jiru dilormaa Oromiyaa keessaa cittuu xiqqoo tokkoo. Qoodi saa kan bakka bu’aa tokkoo yk fuula qabsoo halagaati mullifatanii caalaa ta’uu hin qabu. Qabsichi haa leyuu yoo jedhame marsaa saa jalaa bahuu qaba. Ilmaan Oromoo ala jiran kan hubachuu qaban biraan nambiyyaan hafee halagaallee yoo ta’e qabattee irrati qeeqa kennachuu irra arrabsoon eenymmaa namaa tuquun safuu cabsu fi addaggumaatt akka ilaalamu baruu dha. Sun ofis, hiriyaas, saba ofiis tuffachiisa.Arrabsoon qabsoo ni qummansa malee hin dagaagsuu; daallee malee qaroo irra hin eegamu.
Dhaabicha keessa ilaalchi lamaan jerachuutu gaaffii “hoogganooti ABO waan barbaadan beekuu” jedhu kaasaa ba’e? Hoogganooti qaama sadaffaa birati dhaamsa walmake dabarsu turan. Sagantaan ABO irra waa’een walabummaa barruun jira, hogganooti tokkoo tokkoo garuu sun osoo hin jijjiiramin yaada dimimmisaawaa, tokkummaa Itiyoophiyaa, hiree murteeffanaa fi referendum waliin dhahu dabarsu. Sunis gurra jara waliin hasawaniiti tolinaa jechuuni. Oromoon uumaan nagaa jaallata. Hayyooti ilaalcha daddaaqa qaban sana hawaasa addunya fudhachiisuu dadhabuun qabsoon Oromo amantalaa ta’uu mamsiisee. Leelloo nagaa fi lolaan ABO keessati wal diddaan akka jiru yeroo himamus ni callisan malee soba hin buusifne. Gara keenya jaallatanii isa kaan nu jibbinnu jedhanii dhugaa ture ukkamsani. Uumaa diinatu sibila kaasu giddisiise malee, akka imaammataati nagaan wal dhabdee furachuun durfannoo ABOti, dudhaa Oromootis.
Walumaa galati ilaalcha ifaa qabaachuun waan barbaadan beekanii ijaaramuu nama gargaara. Kan ijaarame hin roora’uu, hundaaf karoora qaba, tasi isa hin jeequ, durfannoo saa beeka. Qabsaawoti akeeka taliilaan Itiyoophiyaa demokratessuuf gad bahuun qabsichaaf hulluuqa guddaa dha. Qabsoon Oromoo sii’achi ilaalcha addunyaa hogganootaan danqamu hin qabdu. Yaada mamsiisaa jala dhokachuunis hafuutu irra jira. Hundu ilaalcha itt amanu duuba haa hiriiru, dhugaasaas danqa malee haa lallabatu. Kan hafe ilaa fi ilaameen furama. Qabsoo ilaalchaa laaqamaan xaxamtee turte furgaatee, hundu arrablame malee waan itt amanu birmadummaa, damboobaa fi obbolummaan haa ifsatu. Galatooma.
Ulfinaa fi surraan gootota kufaniif; walabummaa, walqixxummaa fi bilisummaan kan hafaniif; nagaa fi araarri Ayyaana abboolii fi ayyoliif haa tahu!
“Manifesto” – End of Outlook Stalemate in OLF?
By Ibsaa Guutama*
Whenever we speak about the Oromo struggle, we look back a bit if yesteryear’s experiences might help present efforts. The government of Hayila Sillaasee was toppled by a revolution that erupted as a result of peoples’ rage. To replace the emperor, Darg coordinated some forces around a minimum program. In that way, it brought together those who said they followed socialist principles. Many from the Diaspora dashed to participate in it. It saved them from coming through Baale as promised. All Habashaa “progressives” lauded class struggle as the panacea for societal problems. That attracted nationalists who did not have self-confidence to go to the national struggle alone.
Oromo activists were also able to rally youth that believed in the colonial status of Oromiya and were determined to struggle for her independence. With that, they attracted many youngsters mostly from inside the country. But, there were dropouts along the way, who then joined the Darg group as a result of stronger connections with collaborators and the ease of getting employment. The deceptive presentation of the revolution had also a role. After analyzing the nature of the struggle led by Darg and the situation in the empire, the Kora that convened to found the OLF concluded that those that gathered under the Darg were Nafxanyaa organizations and their Oromo collaborators were no other than neo-Goobanaas (quislings). For this reason, it noted that they did not represent Oromo interest and were incapable of solving the national problem. In conclusion, it founded the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and launched its political program.
Oromo that joined Darg’s Marxist Leninist organizations Union (Imaaledihi) started persecuting Oromo who were not their members by branding them as reactionary narrow nationalists. At that time, they might have thought it was politically correct, but later many could not help regret. The Oromo says “she went out without peers and came back without companion.” The goal of their Habashaa comrades and their identity failed to match. For the Nafxanyaa group, except for minor window dressing, the empire had to remain in tact. They knew the Oromo who joined them remained true to the theory of class struggle and wanted to put it to the finish. So, relations started to take down turn.
Finally, after reestablishing itself, the Nafxanyaa groups started to harass “their non-fitting” comrades in arms. Just like their forefathers, they did not spare them to be of use to their people. All Habashaa organizations looked the Oromo with suspicion and disdain. Thus, those who joined the Habashaa unconditionally to change the empire and create a situation where peoples could live in equality, peace and brotherhood were proven wrong then. For all who went to Habashaa schools such were stories repeatedly told. No one of them escaped those schools. Therefore, their choice could not be attributed to ignorance, but to what is now called “Stockholm Syndrome” or “capture bonding.” This happens when an abuser brain-washes the victim to be grateful for being spared, and to follow him with awe and affection. The Oromo had lived under captivity for more than a century. That influence could still be around.
OLF was formed independent of external influence. But, through time, there was a possibility of its being tinted with some reactionary effect. Comrades were seen dropping each other at every crossing. It could not implement its political program due to various reasons. The problem was not from the program, but from those entrusted with it. Struggle requires from comrades trust, unity of purpose, determination, commitment and vigilance. It is said sweat saves blood. Freedom cannot be easily achieved unless one sweats for it. Wavering between choices can be fruitless, and may even lead to catastrophic bloodletting.
More problems developed with veterans entertaining different outlooks clandestinely, and using any means that wins them support irrespective of consequences. As a result, whistle-blowers started to warn of two outlooks running in the organization. One is the official and dominant OLF position of establishing an independent republic of Oromiyaa. The other outlook developed by minority over a period of time is rooted in Imaaledihi’s program. And that is “to create a democratic Ethiopia in which the right of individuals and groups are respected.” These two outlooks among others had affected the way OLF operated. The leadership kept on denying the existence of difference in outlook, paralyzing the organization. But, these days, whether it was ‘leaked’ or stolen, a document branded “OLF Manifesto” appeared on a web site, and it ended that position. It says among others: “2.1. To build an Ethiopia based on the willingness of Oromo and other nations and nationalities where the political, economic and social rights of the Oromo are respected at all levels.” (writer’s translation)
This outlook was not new for many Oromo circles at home. There are organizations that have adopted it officially. But, it is the first time that a suppressed idea is released from an OLF camp. Now, the two ideas and their adherents are going to break out of their shell for a public debate. The debate will not be in one organization, but between two sides having different outlooks. Each will use tactics fitting it to advance its line of thought. That there could be areas of cooperation in the process cannot be ruled out. Till the end, one of them will agitate for independence, and the other for union. Those that defied the force of habit and came out with such a clear-thought are praiseworthy. Their official declaration is eagerly awaited. Now, the Oromo struggle will line up in two rows. The name OLF will stick to where it belongs when the official dichotomy is declared.
What is going to make the difference is not the name, but the dedication. The idea of the ‘leaked’ manifesto was also heard being aired by an allied faction. It is choosing an idea, not a faction, that will make the struggle meaningful. OLF is an organization with long history and adored by all nationalists. Hence, there is no Oromo Organization that does not want to wear its name. But, from its character design, it does not fit all. Therefore, it is proper that all who have revised methods from the original OLF kaayyoo to adopt a name fitting it. Activists who rally behind different names will be measured, not by the name, but by results they register.
All organizations engaged in the struggle have to be in Oromiyaa, where people that bleed, get wounded, tortured and die for it are. They may go through Baale or Boolee – that does not matter. To organize the youth and make the future of struggle more dependable needs operating from inside the country. The Diaspora is a small fraction of the population of Oromiyaa. Its role should not be more than that of a representative or a foreign face of the struggle. If the struggle has to be viable its present siege must be lifted.
It was the existence of the two outlooks that begged the question “Do OLF leaders know what they want?” Leaders that had access with third parties were not explicit on the issue because of split loyalty. What OLF program tells and what they impart on relation of Oromiyaa and Ethiopia were diametrically opposed. What matters is what they think is good for the ears of their hosts, not principled positions. The Oromo by nature are peace-loving, but this was not stressed in foreign relations to minimize doubts if the Oromo struggle were secular. There had never been conflict in OLF based on peace and war. But, leaders suppressed the truth and did not falsify when that was alleged hoping the other side, not theirs, would bear the blame. In principle, OLF is for peaceful resolution of conflicts, but the nature of its enemy forced it to call to arms.
In general, to have a clear outlook helps to know what one wants and organize accordingly. The organized has set priorities ahead of events and will not be surprised by spontaneity. The coming forward of activists with clear objective of democratizing Ethiopia is a significant breakthrough for the struggle. The Oromo struggle should no more be in stalemate because of conflicting political outlooks of leaders. There should be no more hiding under ambiguities. Let all openly rally behind an idea one believes in. The struggle so far entangled in murky outlook must be released and all freely express ones beliefs in freedom, civility and brotherhood without equivocation. Thank you!
Ulfinaa fi surraan gootota kufaniif; walabummaa, walqixxummaa fi bilisummaan kan lubbuun jiraniif; nagaa fi araarri Ayyaana abbooliif haa tahu!